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Article 2 of the Constitution

Article 2 of the ConstitutionWhat is Article 2 of the Constitution?

Article 2 of the Constitution a section of the United States Constitution that addresses the Executive Branch of the Federal Government; this Article establishes the process and procedures granted to the Executive Branch of the government, which includes the President of the United States – Article 2 of the Constitution defines all matters with regard to the formation, structure, and system implicit to the Office of the President:

Article 2 of the Constitution is one of the 7 Articles that comprise the text of the Constitution of the United States of America; in addition to the Preamble, which serves as the introduction to the Constitution, the document is comprised of 8 total components

The Constitution of the United States not only outlined a framework for a legislative system, but also an identifiable statute reflecting the legal guidelines imposed with regard to the relationship between the United States Federal Government and its collective citizens

Amendments Concerning Article 2 of the Constitution

The Constitutional Amendments are a supplementary component with regard to the totality of the document; subsequent to the passing of Amendments, they serve as adjustment and alterations to preexisting text as it appeared in its original form – the Eleventh Amendment directly addresses Article 2 of the Constitution:

22nd Amendment

Date Proposed: March 21st, 1947

Date Ratified: February 27th, 1951

Contents of the Amendment: The 22nd Amendment outlines the process and procedure latent within individual, respective Presidential terms

25th Amendment

Date Proposed: July 6th, 1965

Date Ratified: February 10th, 1967

Contents of the Amendment: The 25th Amendment outlines a contingency replacement process in the event of the untimely death of the President of the United States

Article 2 of the Constitution: Sections

Within Article 2 of the Constitution, there exist 4 separate sections; within each section exist individual clauses with regard to the statutes expressed:

Article 2 of the Constitution: Section I. (President and Vice President)

Section 1 within Article 2 of the Constitution contains 8 Clauses:

Clause 1, Section 1, Article 2 of the Constitution: The powers granted to the President of the United States

Clause 2, Section 1, Article 2 of the Constitution: The Presidential Election Process

Clause 3, Section 1, Article 2 of the Constitution: The Electoral College System

Clause 4, Section 1, Article 2 of the Constitution: The Establishment of a Day for Election Proceedings to Take Place

Clause 5, Section 1, Article 2 of the Constitution: Guidelines of Eligibility for Presidential Candidacy

Clause 6, Section 1, Article 2 of the Constitution: Contingency and Presidential Replacement Process

Clause 7, Section 1, Article 2 of the Constitution: Monetary Compensation for Wages Earned by the President of the United States

Clause 8, Section 1, Article 2 of the Constitution: The Explication of the Presidential Oath

Article 2 of the Constitution: Section II. (Presidential Powers)

Section 2 within Article 2 of the Constitution contains 3 Clauses:

Clause 1, Section 2, Article 2 of the Constitution: Commander-in-Chief of the Military

Clause 2, Section 2, Article 2 of the Constitution: Explication of a Presidential Advisory Board and Cabinet

Clause 3, Section 2, Article 2 of the Constitution: Procedure with Regard to Senatorial Appointment

Article 2 of the Constitution: Section III. (Implicit Presidential Responsibility)

Section 1 within Article 2 of the Constitution contains 5 Clauses:

Clause 1, Section 3, Article 2 of the Constitution: Addressing the Country

Clause 2, Section 3, Article 2 of the Constitution: Addressing Congress

Clause 3, Section 3, Article 2 of the Constitution: Diplomatic Procedure

Clause 4, Section 3, Article 2 of the Constitution: Lawful Administration

Clause 5, Section 3, Article 2 of the Constitution: The Procedure of Awarding Military Commission

Article 2 of the Constitution: Section IV. (Removal from Office)

This Section addresses circumstances in which the removal from office – through impeachment – is applicable

Who is the Father of the Constitution?

Who is the Father of the Constitution?Who is the Father of Constitution?

While the primary authorship of a vast array of documentations and publication may be cited with ease, the process of identifying the Father of the Constitution may prove to be a far more difficult task; the reasons for this are laden within the fact that Constitution of the United States of America is considered by most historians to be a communal effort with regard to its authorship.

The Constitution of the United States was the production of some of the most revered political and theoretical minds in existence at the time, which results in crediting a variety of these individuals with the respected title: ‘Father of the Constitution’.


What Did the Father of Constitution Do?

The Father of the Constitution is credited with the writing of The Constitution of the United States; a piece of legislature implementing and authorizing the legality facets applicable to the relationship between the Federal Government of the United States and the citizens of the United States. The Articles of Confederation was the preceding legal documentation under which legality was expressed within the newly-formed United States of America subsequent to the end of the Revolutionary War.

Candidates for the Title: ‘Father of Constitution’

The Father of the Constitution, a title bestowed crediting authorship of the Constitution of the United States applies to the following individuals:

Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton, who served as both a state representative from New York, as well a member of the Federalist Party, is one of the visionaries credited with the title of ‘Father of the Constitution’. Hamilton, alongside James Madison and John Jay, penned ‘The Federalist Papers’, which were a direct explication of the presumed inefficiencies within the Articles of Confederation; the Federalist Papers are considered to be the framework for the text of the Constitution of the United States.

James Madison

James Madison – alongside fellow Federalist Alexander Hamilton – is considered to be one of the individuals credited with being the Father of the Constitution. Madison’s political acumen and proficiency in his expression of political thought, ideology, and theory were applied through a vast amount of tenets expressed within the text of the Federalist Papers – and subsequently within the Constitution of the United States. James Madison is also credited with the creation of the Bill of Rights, which is an addendum to the Constitution of the United States illustrating adjustments and modification to the initial text of the Constitution.

Thomas Jefferson

Although Thomas Jefferson is credited as one of the individuals considered to be the Father of the Constitution, Jefferson was renowned for his recognition as the Father of the Declaration of Independence – the first political document adopted by the United States of America subsequent to their independence from England. John Adams is also mentioned as one of the many Fathers of the Constitution; however, like Thomas Jefferson, both men were undertaking diplomatic missions during the signing of the Constitution – as a result, neither of them were able to sign the document.

George Washington

George Washington not only hosted the Mount Vernon Convention, but was also selected by his peers to head the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787; as a result, his name is amongst the aforementioned with regard to their recognition of ‘Father of the Constitution’.

When Was the Constitution Written?

When Was the Constitution Written?

When Was the Constitution Written?
The Constitution of the United States is defined as the primary piece of administrative legislature responsibility for the authorization, classification, and authentication of legality concerning the relationship of the Federal Government of the United States and its collective citizens. The timeline existing in regards to a recounting of the Constitution of the United States’ authorship cannot be limited to a single date; this is due to the fact that the penning of the Constitution of the United States took place in a gradual fashion – various drafts and edits were instated prior to its subsequent ratification:
When Was the Constitution Written?(1785)

· A Convention was held at Mt. Vernon in order to discuss potential action with regard to the separation of the Potomac River with regard to the vague precepts conveyed within the Articles of Confederation with regard to territory
· Federalists Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, as well as pundits including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington were in attendance – as a result of this meeting, the replacement of the Articles of Confederation in lieu of a updated legislature was proposed
· Inadequacies considered to be latent within text of the Articles of Confederation were deemed to foster a weak Central Government, as well as the division of the 13 States; 2 elements that were considered to be harmful by the Founding Fathers
· This meeting prompted the penning of the United States Constitution
When Was the Constitution Written? (1787)

· Following the conference that took place in Mt. Vernon, the first draft of the Constitution of the United Stateswas underwent creationat the Philadelphia Convention, which took place  on May 5th, 1787
· Due to a variety of complication within the approval process – stemming from varying degrees of disapproval from individual State legislature, the Constitution of the United States underwent a vast array of editing and adjustment
· The Final draft of the Constitution of the United States was ratified on September 17th, 1787; 12 of the 13 United States approved of the Constitution – Rhode Island was the only state that refused to ratify the Constitution
What is Constitution Day?

When the question asking “When was the Constitution Written” is posed, many individuals may experience uncertainty with regard to the provision of a suitable – and accurate response. However, Constitution Day – a day of observance that is considered a Federal Holiday, founded in order to celebrate the ratification of the Constitution of the United States – takes place on September 17th on an annual basis; yet, September 17th is the day that the Constitution of the United States was ratified – not written.

Who Wrote the Constitution?

Who Wrote the Constitution?

Can the Question “Who Wrote the Constitution” Be Answered?

Upon posing the question “Who Wrote the Constitution”, the answer given concerning the authorship of the Constitution will typically include a response reflecting a communal effort of authorship; the primary recipients of this classification of authorship are typically credited to Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Thomas Paine, and John Adams – George Washington is credited with the responsibility of overseeing the Constitutional Convention that took place in Philadelphia between May 5th 1787 and September 17th, 1787.

Who Wrote the Constitution: Constitution Basics

The Constitution of the United States is considered to be the foremost piece of legislature with regard to the implementation and authorization of legality and lawfulness within the United States. The Constitution replaced the preexisting legislative document, which was the Articles of Confederation; this document was responsible for the conveyance of legal process within the United States of American – however, many historians classify the Articles of Confederation to be reactionary to the unpleasant conditions under which citizens of the United States lived with regard to the Monarchical rule of King George II of England prior to the end of the Revolutionary War.
Who Wrote the Constitution: Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton, both a state representative from New York, as well a member of the Federalist Party, has been credited with the initial ideology expressed in the Constitution:
The practices proposed in his Federalist Papers – a publication authored by Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay – illustrateda direct portrayal of flaws believed to latent within the Articles of Confederation
Who Wrote the Constitution: James Madison

James Madison was a Federalist – who alongside Alexander Hamilton – was renowned for hiscontribution to the authorship of the Federalist Papers; James Madison has been considered by many to be the Father of the Constitution:
As a result of his acumen with regard to political thought, ideology, and theory, Madison applied a majority of his own tenets that were expressed within the text of the Federalist Papers directly to the text of the Constitution; as a result, historians credit James Madison with the provision of the document’s structure
James Madison is also credited with the conception of the Bill of Rights; due to his conveyance of the absence of a Constitutional Clause providing a system for both the amendment and adjustment of the original text, a clause was subsequently created rectifying these concerns – the actions of James Madison resulted in the proposal of the Bill of Rights in 1789, as well as its subsequent ratification in 1791
Who Wrote the Constitution: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson – the Father of the Declaration of Independence, and John Adams are both recognized as influential framers of the Constitution of the United States:
John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were both undertaking diplomatic missions in Europe during the creation of the final version of the Constitution of the United States; as a result, neither the signature of Thomas Jefferson – nor that of John Adams appear amongst the names of the Constitutional signees

An Overview of Article 3 of the Constitution

An Overview of Article 3 of the Constitution

The creation of the United States Supreme Court came about through Article III, on "The Judicial Branch", of the Constitution. The essential concept of a United States Supreme Court is dealt with in Section 1, "Judicial powers", while the operation of the United States Supreme Court toward the American legal system as a whole is dealt with in Section 2, "Trial by Jury, Original Jurisdiction, Jury Trials".

While all of the subsequent shapes and functions which have been taken by the United States Supreme Court have derived their Constitutional basis from these Sections, the language they contain, as is the case throughout the Constitution, is broad enough to allow for flexibility in interpretation and responding to new challenges.

The manner in which these generally understood terms have affected American history has often been determined by their earliest implementation. The Constitution suggested the scope of powers to be given to a United States Supreme Court, for instance, by specifying "Cases" and "Controversies."

The pertinence of these rules to the actual United States Supreme Court, however, was established by the Chief Justice himself, John Jay, when he pointedly turned down the chance to comment on President Washington's foreign policy. Jay thus established that the United States Supreme Court should not extend beyond rendering case judgments to deciding general Government policy.

The Constitution had previously provided against the entanglement of the United States Supreme Court in political skirmishes by mandating that justices could serve "during good Behavior." In practice, this stipulation has been interpreted as setting a life term.

The United States Supreme Court at once reflects the concerns and established practices of its time and allows for the institution to respond to issues which the Founding Fathers could scarcely have conceived. As an example, the belief in the need for a United States Supreme Court came in part from the theory of the separation of powers as an aspect of governance.

The concept had previously been written about by the French Enlightenment philosopher Montesquieu and implemented to a limited extent in the English political structure. In order for the United States Supreme Court to play its part in realizing this principle, the idea of "judicial review" was invoked.

The Constitution itself does not address judicial review. It was, however, on the minds of the Founding Fathers, as shown by references to the concept appearing in the Federalist Papers and the creation of a United States Supreme Court, which was, in part, aimed at this function.

Moreover, the practicability of judicial oversight had already been demonstrated by its use in individual state courts. As it was not directly set out in the Constitution, however, judicial oversight was not immediately claimed as a right by the Supreme Court, awaiting 1803 and Chief Justice John Marshall's opinion on the case of Marbury v. Madison.

Four separate Chief Justice appointments were made in the Supreme Court's first decade, the last of which, John Marshall, marking the decision for both longer terms for that office and greater power in general for the Court.

Ratification of the Constitution

Ratification of the Constitution

What is the Ratification of the Constitution?
The Ratification of the Constitution took place on June 21st, 1788. The Philadelphia Convention of 1787, which is also known as the Constitutional Convention, began on May 5th, 1787; this convention consisted of the finalization of the drafting process of the Constitution of the United States – the Constitution was finalized on September 17th, 1787.
How Long Did the Ratification of the Constitution Take?
 
The process concerning the Ratification of the Constitution was ambiguous in applicable procedure; due to the statutes expressed within the Articles of Confederation – the existing legislative document prior to the Ratification of the Constitution – a clash existing between preexisting legislation and legislation latent within the Constitution of the United States added difficulty to the subsequent ratification process:
Articles of Confederation and theRatification of the Constitution
 
The statutes regarding ratification expressed within Articles of Confederation mandated that legislation could only be ratified as a result of the collective approval of the entirety of the 13 United States:
The perceived inadequacies within the initial precepts of  Articles of Confederation were contributory to the effort to replace it with the Constitution; this measure was enacted by the Founding Fathers – the fathers of the Constitution were concerned that a single state could overturn an otherwise-communal consent
Constitutional Articles with Regard to the Ratification of the Constitution
 
In contrast to the ratification process expressed within Articles of Confederation, the process conveyed within the Constitution of the United States with regard to a ratification process expressed that the approval of no less than 9 states – out of the total 12 – would be required for the ratification of Amendments:
Despite the Articles of Confederation, the new – Constitutional – process addressing the procedure in conjunction to the Ratification of the Constitution replaced the preexisting ratification protocol
The Ratification of the Constitution took place on June 21st, 1788 subsequent to the approval of 9 out of the 12 States
Which States Participated in the Ratification of the Constitution?
 
Although 9 States initially participated in the Ratification of the Constitution on an individual basis, each of the original 12 States subsequently ratified the Constitution:
The First 9 States
1. Delaware
2. Pennsylvania
3. New Jersey
4. Georgia
5. Connecticut
6. Massachusetts
7. Maryland
8. South Carolina
9. New Hampshire
Subsequent Ratification of the Constitution
10. Virginia
11. New York
12. North Carolina
13. Rhode Island – Rhode Island rejected the Constitution of the United States until May 29th, 1790
Difficulties Experienced With Regard to the Ratification of the Constitution
 
A major contingency of the ratification of the Constitution of the United States on the part of each individual state was their collective acceptance of a viable process of the selection of legislative representation; the protocol for representation expressed within the Articles of Confederation was viewed as flawed due to its uniformity with regard to every State – every state was granted equal apportionment regardless of size or population. The following proposals were set forth prior to the approval of the Connecticut Plan and subsequent ratification of the Constitution:
The Virginia Plan
 
The Virginia Plan was based on a bicameral legislative model based inspired by a form of republicanism. The Virginia Plan proposed that Congress be comprised of 2 legislative entities, the lower and upper houses
The Lower Houses would be elected commensurate to each states’ population, and The Upper House would be elected by The Lower House
The New Jersey Plan:
The New Jersey Plan illustrated a unicameral legislation consisting of a single Congressional legislative body in which each state would have an equal number of representatives
The Connecticut Plan:
 
 
The Connecticut Compromise introduced a legislative body that consisted of the House of Representatives and a Senate; State Representatives elected to go to the House of Representatives was commensurate on the population of the respective state
The number of senators – those individuals selected by each state to serve as representatives in the Senate – was uniform; every state, regardless of size was allowed two.