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The Founding Fathers

A Short Biography of George Washington

A Short Biography of George Washington

George Washington was an American statesman, military leader, and Founding Father who commanded the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Born in Virginia in 1732, Washington spent much of his early life on his family’s farm before venturing into a career as a surveyor, during which time he developed an interest in military matters.

Washington was appointed to be the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in 1775 and led the fledgling American forces to several key victories during the war, including the pivotal Battle of Yorktown in 1781. After the war ended, Washington retired from the military and became a prominent political figure in the United States.

In 1789, Washington was unanimously elected as the first President of the United States, a position he held until 1797. During his presidency, he oversaw the creation of the United States Constitution, the establishment of the federal government, and the negotiation of several key treaties with foreign powers.

After leaving office, Washington retired to his estate in Virginia, where he spent his remaining years managing his property and taking an active interest in the development of the country. He died in 1799 at the age of 67 and is widely regarded as one of the most important figures in American history, revered for his military leadership, political acumen, and steadfast commitment to the ideals of democracy and freedom.


From 1789-1797, George Washington served as the first President of the United States of America. Washington is regarded as the “Father of the United States” for his numerous achievements, most notably his role as commander of the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War and his unyielding efforts to formulate a unified and efficient country.

Washington’s intelligence, charisma, and military experience made him perhaps the most successful and revered general in United States history. Aside from his remarkable accomplishments, Washington’s achievements went beyond the war, extending to the formation of America and the creation of the United States Constitution. Although his closest advisers (Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton) respectively positioned themselves within the Anti-Federalist and Federalist factions, George Washington never affiliated himself with a political party.

The first President of the United States believed that political parties would create stagnation and the creation of opposing sides would impede the collective goals of the country. In regards to the creation of the Constitution, George Washington must be held separate from his fellow Founding Fathers. During the Revolution, Washington was busy
fighting and leading armies to victory over British factions. The “Father of the United States” was tangled in a war, while his fellow intellects were busy contemplating the future and structure of the United States Government.

That being said, in a popular George Washington biography-The Real George Washington-it was revealed that the first President was quite skeptical over the creation of a Constitution. In the George Washington biography, he is quoted as saying, “I almost despair of seeing a favorable issue to the proceedings of the convention, and do therefore repent having any agency in the business.” George Washington’s uneasiness in regards to the Constitution stemmed from a bipartisan sentiment. The goal of finding compromise, of pleasing both contrasting parties, seemed beyond arduous.

Washington had similar fears to prominent Anti-Federalist Party members. He believed that America should be reticent towards the creation of a Federal Government and avoid similar tyrannous actions imposed by the British Parliament. Washington eventually agreed to preside over the Philadelphia Convention in 1787 and oversee the drafting of the United States Constitution. The first President felt as though the original Articles of Confederation severely lacked in finding an appropriate balance of powers. In addition, events such as Shay’s Rebellion and the crippling effects of war, enlightened George Washington to the need of a functional and powerful central Government.

Through the George Washington biography, his sentiments over an empowered Federal Government became transparent. Washington, who was a general at heart, believed that the army needed proper funding and stability to perform its critical duties. Washington’s biggest fear was a nation with a weak heart, one that could be taken over with an effortless assault. Following the adoption of the Articles of Confederation, George
Washington was viewed as the leader of the newly found America. Due in large part to his heroic military efforts, he was lauded as an exemplary Republican and true warrior.

Although not intended to join the Constitutional Convention, Washington was unanimously elected President. Washington rarely participated in debates, but as the need for a national President grew, the delegates of the Constitutional Convention were all aware of the appropriate choice. George Washington received 100% of the electoral vote and
assumed the role of President in 1789. Immediately upon entering office, his support and prestige convinced the 13 states to unanimously ratify the American Constitution.

Who Is George Mason

Who Is George Mason

George Mason: The Forgotten Founding Father

The United States is a country founded by many brilliant minds, individuals who contributed to building a nation that would stand the test of time. Among the many Founding Fathers, one name that has often been overlooked in the chronicles of American history is that of George Mason. Despite his significant contributions to the foundation of the country, Mason is often referred to as the forgotten Founding Father. In this article, we will delve into the life, accomplishments, and legacy of George Mason.

Early Life and Education

George Mason was born on December 11, 1725, in Fairfax County, Virginia. His father, a wealthy planter, died when Mason was just ten years old, leaving him with the responsibility of his family’s estate. Mason’s mother ensured that he received a well-rounded education, including preparing him for his legal career, which would eventually be his passion and calling.

Legal Career & Accomplishments

Mason’s legal career started with his appointment as justice of the peace in 1750, a position he held for 28 years. He established himself as a lawyer of consequence, representing the interests of many wealthy Virginia planters. In 1774, he wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights, which served as a prototype for the United States Bill of Rights. Mason was also a vocal critic of England’s colonial rule and was instrumental in drafting Virginia’s constitution in 1776.

George Mason at the Constitutional Convention

George Mason was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, where he played a significant role in shaping the final outcome of the convention. He was one of three delegates to refuse to sign the Constitution, citing a lack of adequate protection of individual liberties. Mason believed passionately that the Constitution should contain explicit provisions to limit the power of the federal government and safeguard individual rights.

Influencing the Bill of Rights

Mason believed that the Constitution as written gave too much power to the central government. He opposed the idea that the federal government would draft its own rules to satisfy its interests while ignoring the will of the individuals. Mason was a vocal proponent of the inclusion of a bill of rights in the Constitution, which would explicitly state the rights of the individual that the government could not infringe upon. While Mason did not sign the Constitution, he is considered a major influence on the Bill of Rights, which contains the explicit protections of individual rights that he advocated for so passionately.

Legacy

George Mason was a critical figure in the American Revolution and the story of the founding of the United States. He was a man of strong principle and unwavering convictions and fought tirelessly to protect the individual rights of all Americans. However, despite his enormous contributions to the foundation of the country, George Mason remains relatively unknown to many Americans today. However, this is slowly changing with the recognition of Mason’s role in drafting the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Constitution. Several monuments have also been erected in his memory, including one at his estate in Virginia.

Conclusion

As we reflect on the history of the United States, it’s crucial that we remember the contributions of the many lesser-known figures who played significant roles in the country’s foundation. George Mason was one of those figures and his contributions are significant. His passion for protecting individual freedoms and limiting the power of the federal government set the stage for the Bill of Rights, protections still enjoyed by Americans today. Therefore, it is high time to give Mason’s work the respect and admiration it deserves.


A delegate from Virginia to the United States Constitutional Convention, George Mason (along with James Madison) is commonly referred to as the “Father of the Bill of Rights. Unlike Madison, however, George Mason never wavered on his political stances.

Mason was a staunch proponent for the inclusion of individual liberties into the United States Constitution. The patriot from Virginia believed that the Federal Government should be limited in power, and states in congruency with the country’s well-being should have the ability to govern themselves. Mason’s influence can be traced back to 1776, when he first served at the Virginia Convention in Williamsburg.

Mason, a die-hard advocate for individual freedoms, authored the Virginia Declaration of Rights in 1776. George Mason firmly believed that the success of a nation depended on the happiness and individuality of its people. A substantial member of the Anti-Federalist movement, Mason felt as though the components that make up the government are more important than the government itself. This individualist sentiment was captured in Mason’s creation of his State’s Constitution.

The Virginia Declaration of Rights was the first document in American History to concretely outline a series of individual rights as they pertained to the greater good of the government. The Virginia Declaration of Rights was the most influential State doctrine and the precursor for the first 10 Amendments to the United States Constitution.

In 1786, Mason was appointed to represent Virginia as a delegate to the Federal Convention in Philadelphia. The purpose of the meeting was to revise the Articles of Confederation and find an appropriate balancing of powers between the individual, the states, and the Federal Government. While at the meetings, Mason grew frustrated and uncommonly reserved. He refused to sign the ratification of The amended Constitution due to the absence of individual rights.

Many historians have claimed that Mason’s refusal to compromise with the ratification process cost him close friendships with George Washington and other proponents of an empowered centralized government. As a result of his unwavering stance, Mason’s popularity and historical recognition severely waned. Following the meetings, Mason and his fellow supporters moved back to Virginia where the Anti-Federalist Party continued to preach the necessity of a Bill of Rights.

The stance taken by the Anti-Federalist Party was a fervent one; they believed that the newly founded country was ironically and shamefully steering a course of government reminiscent of the authoritative British Parliament. Mason felt that a strong central government would abuse its power and eventually lose sight of the country’s needs and vision. In response to the Anti-Federalist Party’s inertia, the Constitution was again up for revision in 1791.

Primarily influenced by George Mason’s Virginia Declaration of Rights, the United States Bill of Rights was ratified on December 15th, 1791. James Madison, the author of the first 10 Amendments, was originally a member of the Federalist Party and proponent of a strong federal government. Whether Madison authored the Bill of Rights due to a change in personal belief or because he needed Mason’s support and the subsequent Virginia vote is still questioned to this day. What is known, however, is that without Mason’s unyielding efforts, the inclusion of individual rights in the U.S. Constitution would have been in serious limbo and perhaps never solidified.

Who Is Patrick Henry

Who Is Patrick Henry

From 1776-1779 and 1784-1786,
Patrick Henry served multiple terms as post-colonial Governor of Virginia.
Henry, who is most widely remembered for his rousing “give me liberty give
me death” speech, is considered one of the most influential and radical Founding
Fathers in United States history.
All Founding Fathers had an
influence in the creation of the American Constitution or the separation from
the British Monarch, the means or efforts, however, vary in terms of ferocity
and candidness. Along with Thomas Paine and Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry is
commonly referred to as the most boisterous advocate for the American
Revolution, and more specifically, Republicanism.
Patrick Henry was a firm
believer in “clean” governments and refused to accept corruption
among Government officials. Henry’s fervent beliefs on Government actions
greatly augmented a unifying uprising against British rule. Some of the chief
causes of the Revolutionary War simply stemmed from the influence and rhetoric of
various leaders such as Patrick Henry.
During the mid-1760s, to fund wars and balance a deficit, the
British imposed a series of levies on consumer goods and imports. In response
to the unjust Stamp Act of 1765, Patrick Henry published what is commonly
referred to as the most anti-British piece of legislation ever. Although Henry
was considered just a rookie in Virginia’s legislative body (House of
Burgesses), the young politician successfully produced and argued for the
passing of the Virginia Stamp Act Resolutions.
The proposal, written by Henry,
contained such extreme language that it is commonly referred to as one of the
significant causes of the Revolutionary War. Patrick Henry stated the violation
of many principles within the document, including Britain’s unfair enforcement
of taxation on citizens not represented by Parliament. Since America was
founded, British law claimed that the colonials would only be taxed by
governing bodies that represented them. The Stamp Act was a prime example of
treason and one of the many significant causes of the Revolutionary War.
Enraged by the tyrannous actions of the British government, Patrick Henry
vehemently sought justice through passionate and defiant speeches.
On March 23rd, 1775, the House of Burgesses was vacillating
between mobilizing an army against the British Empire or withholding troops and
continuing a non-active approach. Although the exact words of the speech are
debated, Patrick Henry gave an impassioned rallying cry to his fellow
politicians in the favor of mobilization. Henry concluded his speech with what
is now regarded as immortalized American rhetoric, “Is life so dear, or
peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid
it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, Give
me Liberty, or give me Death!” The crowd in response to such a powerful
speech rose to their collective feet and let out a raucous yell in support of
mobilization. Powerful words such as these were a great spark and one of the
causes of the Revolutionary War.

During the Revolutionary War, Patrick Henry served as a colonel of
the 1st Virginia Regiment and led the militia to victory in numerous battles.
Following the war, Henry retained his position as Governor of Virginia in 1784.
Although invited, Henry strongly disfavored the Constitution and refused to
attend the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Henry was a strong supporter of
individual freedoms and a firm believer in the attainment of State rights.
Ashamed by the power awarded to the central government, Henry led his fellow
Virginians to reject the ratification of the United States Constitution.
Patrick Henry was arguably the
leading and most influential member of the Anti-Federalist Party. Before he
passed away in 1799 Henry promised himself and his fellow supporters that a Bill
of Rights would be included in the amended Constitution. Along with other Founding
Fathers, Patrick Henry was influential in the adoption and increased momentum
for the inclusion of individual rights in the Constitution. Although an arduous
process, Henry eventually reached his goal, for the first 10 Amendments of the
United States Constitution unequivocally grants freedoms and liberties to the
individual American.

The Short Biography Of Thomas Jefferson

The Short Biography Of Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson was a Founding Father of the United States who was instrumental in the development and establishment of democratic principles in the country. He was born on April 13, 1743, in Albemarle County, Virginia and was the third of ten children.

Early life:

Thomas Jefferson was a well-educated man with a broad range of interests. He was trained as a lawyer and studied at the College of William and Mary in Virginia, where he developed a lifelong love of learning. Jefferson was also an accomplished musician, architect, and inventor, and maintained correspondence with many of the leading intellectuals of his time.

Jefferson’s Political Career:

In 1769, Thomas Jefferson began his political career as a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. He later served as Virginia’s delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was a co-author of the Declaration of Independence.

Jefferson also served as the United States Minister to France, where he became a proponent of the French Revolution and developed close relationships with many of its leaders. He later served as Secretary of State under President George Washington, where he advocated for a strict interpretation of the Constitution and opposed plans to create a strong central government.

In 1801, Thomas Jefferson was elected as the third President of the United States, after defeating John Adams in a contentious election. During his time in office, Jefferson helped to expand the territory of the United States through the Louisiana Purchase, and worked to reduce the power of the federal government in favor of state and individual rights.

Jefferson’s Legacy:

Thomas Jefferson is remembered as one of the most important and influential leaders in the history of the United States. He was a champion of democracy and individual rights, and worked tirelessly to ensure that all citizens would be free and equal under the law.

Jefferson’s ideas and beliefs continue to have a lasting impact on American society, and his contributions to the development of democratic principles remain a source of inspiration for millions of people around the world. From his advocacy for religious freedom, to his vision of an agrarian-based economy that favored small farmers over wealthy elites, Jefferson remains an icon of American democracy and a reminder of the ideals that have made the country great.


Thomas Jefferson, widely considered one of the most respected and influential of the FoundingFathers, served as both President of the United States and principle author to the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson constantly promoted his ideas of liberty and Republicanism in the attempt to thwart British imperialism and provide a new democracy for the American people.

Dissimilarto many colonial politicians or Founding Fathers, Jefferson was considered aworldly politician. He was a man of the Enlightenment and routinely made tripsoverseas to interact with foreign intellects. The prominent Founding Fatherbelieved in the separation of church and state, and a balancing of powersbetween federal and local governments. Jeffersonian Democracy often showed discontent for authoritative governments, for it distrusted large empires, cities, and financiers.

In his first published work, A Summary View of the rights of British America, Jefferson outlined the injustices of the British Parliament and cited numerous violations against natural laws. Many of the Founding Fathers authored publications thatdenounced unjust British taxation as a violation against Constitutional ortangible laws. Jefferson, however, attacked the levies as an inequity against human rights.

Jefferson radically believed that colonists possessed “natural” rights to govern themselves and the reach of the British rule did not extend to infiltrate the colonial way of life. Like the other anti-British publications, A Summary View of the Rights of British America did concretely expose thelegality issues involved in taxation of colonies that were not overseen by theParliament. However, Jefferson’s overwhelming thesis revolved around the basic rights of the individual and the necessity of separated life from government.

Thepublication, represented by the Virginia Delegation, was originally intended tobe delivered at the first Continental Congress. However, Jefferson’s ideas weresimply viewed as too radical. Although the pamphlet failed to reach State leaders in the Congress, it still served as a critical rallying cry used to spark the Revolution.

Shortly following the outbreak of theRevolutionary War, Thomas Jefferson served as a delegate to the SecondContinental Congress in June of 1775. Although the war already commenced,Congress felt the necessity to fully establish independence with thedrafting of an official document. As a result of his influence and literary skills,Jefferson was appointed to a five man committee responsible for authoring theDeclaration of Independence.

Using theVirginia Constitution as his framework, Jefferson was given chiefresponsibility to author the historical document. Even though a quarter of the original text was deleted, the Declaration of Independence was approved on July 4th, 1776, and served as Jefferson’s most notable and stunning achievement. The Preamble of the Declaration is still considered one of the most revolutionary and thought-provoking literary passages on human rights.

Thomas Jefferson returned to Virginia and servedas governor and delegate through 1784. While in office, Jefferson set out toreform Virginia’s system of laws to better reflect the State’s new status as ademocratic jurisdiction. Along with transforming the education system,Jefferson established freedom of religion and organized the judicial system forstreamlining purposes. Jefferson also eliminated capital punishment for all crimes other than murder and treason.

Followinghis work in Virginia, Jefferson served as a minister to France from 1785-1789.Although his abroad status disabled Jefferson from attending the PhiladelphiaConvention, he was informed of the specifics and events that led up to the drafting of the American Constitution.

The authorof the Declaration of Independence was commonly distraught over the lack ofindividual freedoms within the document, but generally supported the principlesand ideology of the Constitution. Jefferson’s absence in the drafting of the Constitution was severely missed. However, his words and teachings perpetuallyloomed over the Founding Fathers in attendance. When Jefferson was elected President in 1801 his impact grew larger as he purchased the Louisiana Territory, repealed numerous Federal taxes, barred slavery importation, and further progressed individual rights and thought.

Who Is Thomas Paine

Who Is Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine was an English-American writer, philosopher, and revolutionary whose works inspired the American Revolution and the Revolutionary War. Born in England in 1737, Paine moved to the American colonies in 1774 and became a passionate advocate for American independence.

Paine’s most famous work is “Common Sense,” a pamphlet that was published in January 1776. This pamphlet argued that the American colonies should break away from British rule and establish an independent government. The pamphlet was widely read and distributed throughout the colonies, and it played a key role in shaping popular opinion in favor of independence.

In addition to “Common Sense,” Paine wrote a series of essays called “The American Crisis,” which were published between 1776 and 1783. These essays were designed to inspire American troops and boost morale during the Revolutionary War. Paine’s most famous line from “The American Crisis” is “These are the times that try men’s souls,” which has become a well-known quote in American history.

Paine was also an ardent supporter of democracy and individual rights. In his book “Rights of Man,” Paine argued that all men were born with inalienable rights, including the right to freedom of thought, speech, and assembly. He also opposed slavery and promoted the idea of a progressive income tax.

Despite being an important figure in the American Revolution, Paine fell out of favor with many American leaders after the war. He criticized the U.S. Constitution, arguing that it did not do enough to protect individual rights. He also spoke out against organized religion, which alienated many Americans who were deeply religious.

In his later years, Paine lived in Europe and continued to write about political and social issues. He wrote several books, including “The Rights of Man, Part II” and “The Age of Reason,” which challenged organized religion and offered a more secular view of morality.

Thomas Paine’s legacy is reflected in the many social and political movements he helped influence. He was a passionate advocate for democracy, individual rights, and freedom of thought and expression. His works inspired the American Revolution and helped shape the United States into the democratic nation it is today. Paine’s commitment to freedom and individual rights continues to inspire people around the world today.


Through his widely-read pamphlet, Common Sense, the words and teachings ofThomas Paine eventually sparked a following necessary for the AmericanRevolution. Thomas Paine, a founding father of the United States of America,was considered a radical intellectual who doggedly advocated colonial America’ssovereignty from Great Britain’s Monarch. Mostly for his work in Common Sense, Paine is referred to as the “The Father of the AmericanRevolution.”

Common Sense was published on January 10,1776 and quickly became a best-selling piece of literature. The pamphlet whichbegan circulation following the outbreak of the Revolutionary War was adoptedas a way of life for many American settlers. The words were read out loud in taverns and small gatherings, effectively spreading the thoughts ofRepublicanism and boosting enthusiasm for a separation from British rule.

Common Sense strayed away from the generic anti-British publication; it was a radical, pro-active approach, aimed at unifying and mobilizing militias to physically fight for freedom. Although considered crazed by some, Thomas Paine effectively harnessed the emotion ofAmerican settlers and unified them into a widespread uprising against British rule.

Dissimilar to other influential works of 18th Century literature, Common Sense offered the reader an ultimatum of sorts. The pamphlet’sobjective was to connect with the individual. It was meant to offer a glimpseinto the future. Thomas Paine wanted the reader to ask him/herself a prettysimple, yet seldom discussed question. Common Sense provided a new argument for independence. It compelledthe reader to question what the future would be like under British rule. Whenindividuals read the pamphlet they pondered the true power of tyranny and howit could negatively strip society of individuality and freedom. Part of Thomas Paine’s brilliance was found in his concise and easy-to-follow writing. Unlikeother publications, Paine’s writing style was simple. The average settler couldfollow along and be able to attach his/her emotions to the work.

Thepolitical writing was intended to be informal; Paine wanted to mobilize theContinental Army to fight against British rule. Paine’s objective was not toreach the statesmen or prominent figures of the colonies, but instead theaverage men and women of society who were directly oppressed by Britain’sunjust taxation and cruel punishments. Although Common Sense effectively united colonists together and spawned an anti-British sentiment, it was referred by many as simply a radical and untrustworthy source.

A group of powerful and respected colonists viewed Thomas Paine as a fraud and his writings as a poisonous attempt to start a Revolution. John Adams and otherinfluential politicians believed that Common Sense was inherently dangerous and would eventually create a radical democracy unable to properly govern its people.

Following the release of Common Sense, Thomas Paine was quickly thrown into a world ofcontroversy and scandal. Paine was elected to the Congressional Committee onForeign Affairs in 1777, but was quickly relieved of his post following secretnegotiations with France. Thomas Paine was a man obsessed with Revolution andthe fight towards freedom. Following his termination from the Congressional Committee on Foreign Affairs, Paine stepped out of the spotlight only to later return with influential works revolving around the French Revolution.

Thomas Paine’sworks and influence may be questioned, but his intentions and his desire tospark Revolution are undoubted. His words were awe-inspiring and often used toboost morale of troops during times of war. Without the words of Common Sense and Paine’s influence, the rallying cry of American colonistsduring the Revolution would have been undeniably softer.

Who Is Roger Sherman

Who Is Roger Sherman

Roger Sherman: A Founding Father and Architect of the American Republic

Roger Sherman (1721-1793) was an American lawyer, politician, and Founding Father who played a crucial role in shaping the early history of the United States. He was one of the architects of the American Republic and was instrumental in drafting the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. This article will explore the life and legacy of Roger Sherman.

Early Life and Career

Roger Sherman was born on April 19, 1721, in Newton, Massachusetts, and grew up in Stoughton. He received little formal education but was an avid reader and taught himself math and surveying. At the age of 20, he moved to New Milford, Connecticut, where he became a successful merchant, landowner, and surveyor.

Sherman’s public career began in 1755 when he was elected to the Connecticut House of Representatives. He quickly became a prominent figure in Connecticut politics and served in several key positions, including as a judge and treasurer of Yale College.

Political Career

Roger Sherman was one of the most influential Founding Fathers and played a pivotal role in shaping the early history of the United States. At the Continental Congress, he was involved in many of the most important decisions made during the Revolutionary War.

Sherman helped draft the Declaration of Independence, which was adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. He was also a member of the committee that drafted the Articles of Confederation, which served as the nation’s first constitution from 1777 to 1789. Sherman’s ideas and proposals helped shape the national government under the Articles of Confederation.

In 1787, Sherman was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. He played a significant role in drafting the United States Constitution and was one of the original signers of the final document. Sherman’s experience in state and national government made him a valuable contributor to the convention.

One of Sherman’s most significant contributions to the Constitution was the “Great Compromise.” The Great Compromise created a bicameral legislature, which consisted of a Senate with equal representation per state and a House of Representatives based on population. This compromise helped resolve a critical issue at the convention and paved the way for the ratification of the Constitution.

Legacy

Roger Sherman’s legacy extends far beyond his direct contribution to the founding of the United States. He is remembered as one of the most brilliant minds of his time and a critical voice in shaping the young nation’s political and legal system.

Sherman’s work on the Great Compromise helped establish a stable, democratic government that has stood the test of time for over two centuries. His ideas and proposals helped create a central government that protected individual freedoms while still providing for the common good.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Roger Sherman was one of the most important Founding Fathers of the United States. His contributions to the drafting of the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution shaped the early history of the nation and established a strong foundation for future generations.

Sherman’s legacy has influenced countless leaders who have followed in his footsteps, and his vision and ideas continue to guide the United States towards a brighter future. His work as an architect of the American Republic will always be remembered and celebrated, and his impact on the nation’s history will never be forgotten.


Roger Sherman was the only Founding Father to have signed what is now considered the four great state papers of the United States of America: the ContinentalAssociation, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. Roger Sherman was a prominent politician who served on the Committee responsible for drafting the Declaration ofIndependence.

In contrastto more radical or boisterous Founding Fathers, Roger Sherman was a reservedman, focused primarily on the legal system of America. Sherman served as theMayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and quickly grew a mountain of wealth thatearned him both power and respect. His peers viewed him as an honest, educated man who perceived the Revolution as an economical and legal issue.

Roger Sherman greatly resented Parliament andtheir unjust taxation methods. An active and influential member of theContinental Congress, Sherman was one of the first Founding Fathers to deny thesupremacy of Parliament. He believed that the British government had no legaljustification to enforce laws or levy taxes on American settlers.

Althoughconservative, Roger Sherman quickly became a leader in Revolutionary politics.Even though the prominent politician was staunchly against British politics,Sherman still believed that a central government was necessary for thebetterment of man. Sherman originally favored the Articles of Confederation. While in Congress he drafted a series of amendments which attempted to solidify the powers of the central government.

Along withsupporters, the Mayor of New Haven envisioned a government stable enough tolevy taxes, establish a Supreme Court, and create a set of legal codes that allof society would follow. Sherman’s efforts, unlike George Mason or Patrick Henry,were not focused on the rights of the individual, but instead, on the processof electing officials and balancing powers within the Federal Government.

When various Founding Fathers and State leadersmet at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 their objective was clear. TheArticles of Confederation represented the first true form of Constitution inAmerican history. Like many first drafts, the Articles of Confederation was metwith great skepticism. Sherman and the other prominent figures set out to amend the Articles and create a document that unified, as well as successfully established, America as a functional and progressive nation.

In response to the objective, Roger Sherman proposed what is now known as his greatest accomplishment to American History. The Great Compromise, or TennesseeCompromise, was introduced by Sherman during the Constitutional Convention andaimed to organize the inner-workings of the Federal Government. The GreatCompromise was created to alleviate a long struggle regarding Staterepresentation. When the Articles were drafted, the separation of powersbetween large and small states were askew. In the Great Compromise RogerSherman essentially created the bicameral legislature which resulted in the current formation of the House of Representatives and the United States Senate.

The bicameral legislation (lower House and upper House) in the Great Compromise featured a legislative structure that balanced powers between heavily-populated states and their smaller counterparts. The lower House favored the largerstates and based representation on the population of the State. Candidates wereto be elected by the people of the particular State in proportion to thepopulation. Membership in the upper House, however, was not based on populationand instead allocated two seats to each State regardless of size. Upper House(presently the Senate) officials were elected by State legislatures untilratification of the 17th Amendment awarded that right to the people. The GreatCompromise lead the way for the creation of the United States Senate and House of Representatives and successfully balanced the powers between large and small states.

Who Are The Founding Fathers

Who Are The Founding Fathers

The Founding Fathers were a group of prominent American statesmen and political leaders who played a key role in the American Revolution, the drafting of the United States Constitution, and the establishment of a new nation. These individuals were instrumental in shaping the political, social, and economic institutions that would define the United States for years to come.

The Founding Fathers came from various backgrounds and regions of the country, but they all shared a common vision of creating a new, democratic government that would be accountable to its citizens. They were committed to the principles of liberty, equality, and individual rights, which would be enshrined in the Constitution.

Key Founding Fathers include George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. Each of these men played a significant role in the creation of the United States, whether through military leadership, political thought, or diplomatic efforts.

George Washington, who served as the first President of the United States, was a vital military and political figure in the American Revolution. He was a staunch advocate for a strong, centralized federal government and played an essential role in the drafting and ratification of the U.S. Constitution.

Thomas Jefferson, who served as the third President of the United States, was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and played a key role in the expansion of the United States through the Louisiana Purchase.

John Adams, the second President of the United States, was a prominent lawyer and political theorist who played a critical role in the early years of the American Revolution. He was a leading voice in the debate over independence and later acted as a diplomat to secure foreign support for the United States.

Benjamin Franklin was an influential statesman, inventor, and scientist who was instrumental in securing critical foreign support for the American Revolution. He also played an important role in the drafting of the U.S. Constitution and was a fierce advocate for the abolition of slavery.

James Madison, who served as the fourth President of the United States, was instrumental in drafting and promoting the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. He was a key proponent of a strong federal government and played a critical role in shaping American political institutions.

Alexander Hamilton was an important statesman and economist who played a vital role in the establishment of the United States’ economic and financial systems. He was a leading voice in the ratification of the Constitution and was instrumental in the formation of the United States’ first political party, the Federalist Party.

John Jay was a prominent lawyer, diplomat, and politician who played a key role in the American Revolution and was the first Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.

In conclusion, the Founding Fathers were a group of prominent American political leaders who played a critical role in the establishment of a new nation founded on democratic principles and individual rights. These men were instrumental in the American Revolution, the drafting of the U.S. Constitution, and the formation of the United States as we know it today. Their contributions to American history cannot be overstated, and their legacy continues to inspire generations of Americans to this day.


Background

The Founding Fathers were a group of prominent American colonialists, responsible for the creation of the U.S Constitution and Declaration of Independence. The Founding Fathers of America were various statesmen, politicians, intellects, and authors. They were renaissance men of sorts, responsible for a multitude of societal contributions. The American Revolution, sparked by unjust taxation and a suffocating British Parliament, was intensified through the teachings and influence of such men. Although their methods and political thoughts varied, the Founding Fathers all contributed in the unification of America and the subsequent formation of a balanced governing system. Following the Revolutionary War the country needed to adopt a doctrine that would organize and balance the powers of a newly formed government. An arduous task, indeed, the Founding Fathers eventually reached a compromise that distributed powers between the individual colonialist, the Federal Government, and the states.

Alexander Hamilton

A respected leader of the Federalist Party, Alexander Hamilton viewed an empowered central government as the means to a functional society. Hamilton was a cynic at heart. He distrusted individuals from making aggregate decisions. Although coming off a Revolution against an authoritative rule, Hamilton believed that an empowered central government was necessary to properly administer adequate taxation, foreign policy, and legal systems. Faced with anti-Federalist opposition, Hamilton gathered his fellow supporters and produced a series of publications known as the Federalist Papers. The collection of 85 essays was aimed to educate the masses as well as spark Federalist momentum.

The Federalist Papers, by revealing the connotation of the Constitution, aimed to ratify the legislative document and further empower the Federal Government. Hamilton and his fellow peers were disgusted by the separation of powers outlined in the original context. Too much power was awarded to the states, the country became fragmented, and the taxation/legal system was completely inept. Hamilton and his prominent counterparts eventually reached a compromise: power was awarded to the Federal Government to tax and enforce laws, but the states and individuals also enjoyed various liberties and voting privileges.

Thomas Jefferson

A Summary View of the Rights of British America, Jefferson’s first published work, attacked the British rule as a direct violation against human rights. Jefferson’s thesis and overwhelming ideology revolved around the basic rights of man and the direct attempt by the Parliament to impede such liberties. Following the outbreak of the Revolutionary War Congress appointed a five man committee to author the Declaration of Independence. As a result of his literary genius, Jefferson authored the historical document and quickly became regarded as a thought-provoking leader for the establishment of human rights. During the Constitutional Convention, Jefferson was abroad serving as a diplomat. Although absent, his viewpoints and desire for the inclusion of individual rights were expressed through the Anti-Federalist Party.

Thomas Paine

In Common Sense, Thomas Paine successfully ignited and augmented anti-British sentiments that aided in fueling the American Revolution. Referred to as the “Father of the American Revolution”, Paine effectively spread the thoughts of Republicanism and boosted enthusiasm for American sovereignty. Common Sense separated itself from other anti-British literature. The pamphlet used concise writing to which the average colonialist could relate. Through his writing, Paine offered American settlers an ultimatum: fight for your freedom or take a risk and live life under a dominating and tyrannous British government.

Common Sense was a rallying cry for the American Revolution. The book was read out loud in local taverns and to militiamen eager to fight the British forces. Although seen as a radical, Thomas Paine’s influence towards sparking a revolution cannot be questioned.

Who Is James Madison

Who Is James Madison

John Adams: A Founding Father and Second President of the United States

John Adams (1735-1826) was a prominent American Founding Father and the second President of the United States. A gifted lawyer, writer, and diplomat, Adams devoted his life to the pursuit of liberty and justice, leaving behind a legacy of intellectual achievement and political courage. In this article, we will explore the life, work, and achievements of John Adams.

Early Life and Education

John Adams was born on October 30, 1735, in Braintree, Massachusetts (now known as Quincy, Massachusetts), to a family of modest means. His father was a farmer, the deacon of the local Congregational Church, and a strong supporter of the Whig Party. Adams was educated at Harvard College, earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1755 and a Master of Arts degree in 1758.

Career in Law and Politics

Adams started his career as a schoolteacher but soon shifted his focus to the law. He was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1758 and practiced law in Boston for several years. Adams became known for his passionate defense of individual rights and constitutional liberties, as well as his opposition to British colonial rule. He quickly established a reputation as one of the most prominent and successful lawyers in Massachusetts.

Adams entered politics in the 1760s, serving in the colonial legislature and then in the Continental Congress. He was a key participant in the struggle for American independence, helping to draft the Declaration of Independence and working tirelessly to secure diplomatic and military support from France. Adams was also a key figure in the negotiation of the Treaty of Paris, which formally ended the Revolutionary War and recognized American independence.

Presidency

In 1796, Adams was elected the second President of the United States, succeeding George Washington. His presidency was marked by international crises, including the Quasi-War with France and tensions with Britain. Adams was a vocal supporter of the United States Navy, which he saw as crucial to protecting American interests at home and abroad.

One of Adams’s most significant achievements as president was the signing of the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798. These laws, which were intended to protect national security and prevent seditious behavior, were controversial and led to accusations of government overreach and suppression of free speech.

Despite his many accomplishments, Adams was not re-elected for a second term, losing to Thomas Jefferson.

Legacy

John Adams’s legacy is significant, both for his contributions to the American Revolution and for his key role in the formation of the American government. Adams was a vocal advocate for individual rights and was one of the key architects of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

In addition to his political legacy, Adams is also remembered for his extensive writings. He was a prolific correspondent, and many of his letters and other writings have been published. Perhaps his most famous work is his autobiography, which provides an in-depth look at his life and opinions.

Conclusion

John Adams was a man of great intelligence, passion, and conviction who devoted his life to the pursuit of justice and freedom. His contributions to the founding of the United States were significant, and his legacy continues to shape American politics and society today. Adams’s life and work are a testament to the importance of knowledge, principles, and the courage to stand up for what is right, even when it is unpopular.


James Madison was an innovative political philosopher and the 4th President of theUnited States of America. Madison is one of the more unique Founding Fathers,for his interpretation on the inclusion of individual rights in the Constitutiondrastically shifted. Known as the”Father of the Constitution”, Madison was the principle author of the Bill of Rights and a leader in the first United States Congress. The fluctuation in Madison’s ideology stemmed from his jump from the Federalist Party to the Anti-Federalist Party.

Madison originally was a principle author of theFederalist Papersand stressed the importanceof an appropriate balance of powers between the Federal and State governments.In many of the Federalist publications Madison claimed that a large countrywith an assortment of interests could better support republican values, more sothan a fragmented country with individual governments. Although this interpretation was ignored at the time, the viewpoints expressed were adopted by the Pluralist Party in the 20th Century.

Along with John Jay and Alexander Hamilton, Madison sought to overhaul the Articles of Confederation and alter the document’s drastic separation of powers between the State and central governments. At thePhiladelphia Convention in 1787, the often shy Madison proposed the Virginia Plan, which in essence was the establishment of the modern three-branch Federal system. Madison’s intent in congruency with the Federalist platform was to create a powerful and efficient central government capable of overruling State actions.

During ratification meetings and open forums, Madison consistently argued for the proposed 3-branch system and claimed that individual liberties or empowered State governments would impede the long term goals of a newly founded nation. In the late 1780s, Patrick Henry and George Mason desired an inclusion of individual liberties (the Bill of Rights) into the United States Constitution. These menas well as other supporters of the Bill of Rights were considered opposition toJames Madison and prominent Federalist leaders. Although the stances seemed concrete, Madison later acknowledged the points raised by the Anti-Federalists and quickly focused his energies on authoring a set of Amendments which guaranteed the individual definitive liberties.

The initial stance taken by Madison revolved around the separation of powers and the need for a fully functional Federal Government.Madison originally claimed that the inclusion of individual rights was superfluous; the original Constitution inherently offered such rights through interpretation. The influential politician felt as though individualrights were not as crucial as empowering the central government. Madison also believed that State governments already offered a series of individual freedoms and their success generally proved futile.

The Democracy of America proved to be the Federalist Party’s largest barrier. Inorder for the original Constitution to be ratified the states had to agree onthe principles outlined in a 3/4 majority vote. Although his intentions are still cloudy, many believe that Madison eventually authored the Bill of Rights to appease the Anti-Federalist Party in a compromise to ratify the three-branch Federal system and original Constitution. James Madison offered a series of 12 proposed Amendments in June of 1789. The proposed package contained a plethora of individual liberties that still preside over society today. The proposal was later ratified to 10 Amendmentsand the official United States Bill of Rights was included in the Constitutionin 1791. Whatever his intentions may have been, Madison authored arguably the most significant set of individual freedoms found in the United States’ principle legal doctrine.

James Madison’s drastic political shift becamemore conspicuous after the adoption of the Bill of Rights. While serving inCongress Madison joined forces with Thomas Jefferson in an attempt to limit thepower of the Federal Government. Madison, along with Anti-Federalist Party members, grew horrified at George Washington and Alexander Hamilton’s efforts to build a government reminiscent of the abusive and tyrannous British Parliament.

Madison andJefferson shared similar viewpoints up until 1812, where the war exposedAmerica’s ineptness in the form of a weak centralized government. Althoughhistorians have disagreed on Madison’s political vacillations, his efforts,accomplishments (most notably the Bill of Rights), and impact on Americansociety cannot be ignored.

Who Is John Adams

Who Is John Adams

John Adams: A Founding Father and Second President of the United States

John Adams (1735-1826) was a prominent American Founding Father and the second President of the United States. A gifted lawyer, writer, and diplomat, Adams devoted his life to the pursuit of liberty and justice, leaving behind a legacy of intellectual achievement and political courage. In this article, we will explore the life, work, and achievements of John Adams.

Early Life and Education

John Adams was born on October 30, 1735, in Braintree, Massachusetts (now known as Quincy, Massachusetts), to a family of modest means. His father was a farmer, the deacon of the local Congregational Church, and a strong supporter of the Whig Party. Adams was educated at Harvard College, earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1755 and a Master of Arts degree in 1758.

Career in Law and Politics

Adams started his career as a schoolteacher but soon shifted his focus to the law. He was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1758 and practiced law in Boston for several years. Adams became known for his passionate defense of individual rights and constitutional liberties, as well as his opposition to British colonial rule. He quickly established a reputation as one of the most prominent and successful lawyers in Massachusetts.

Adams entered politics in the 1760s, serving in the colonial legislature and then in the Continental Congress. He was a key participant in the struggle for American independence, helping to draft the Declaration of Independence and working tirelessly to secure diplomatic and military support from France. Adams was also a key figure in the negotiation of the Treaty of Paris, which formally ended the Revolutionary War and recognized American independence.

Presidency

In 1796, Adams was elected the second President of the United States, succeeding George Washington. His presidency was marked by international crises, including the Quasi-War with France and tensions with Britain. Adams was a vocal supporter of the United States Navy, which he saw as crucial to protecting American interests at home and abroad.

One of Adams’s most significant achievements as president was the signing of the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798. These laws, which were intended to protect national security and prevent seditious behavior, were controversial and led to accusations of government overreach and suppression of free speech.

Despite his many accomplishments, Adams was not re-elected for a second term, losing to Thomas Jefferson.

Legacy

John Adams’s legacy is significant, both for his contributions to the American Revolution and for his key role in the formation of the American government. Adams was a vocal advocate for individual rights and was one of the key architects of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

In addition to his political legacy, Adams is also remembered for his extensive writings. He was a prolific correspondent, and many of his letters and other writings have been published. Perhaps his most famous work is his autobiography, which provides an in-depth look at his life and opinions.

Conclusion

John Adams was a man of great intelligence, passion, and conviction who devoted his life to the pursuit of justice and freedom. His contributions to the founding of the United States were significant, and his legacy continues to shape American politics and society today. Adams’s life and work are a testament to the importance of knowledge, principles, and the courage to stand up for what is right, even when it is unpopular.


John Adams, one of the most prominent and influential Founding Fathers in American history, played a critical role in the development of the newly found United States.Adams, who served as both Vice President and President of the United States, was considered a revolutionary political philosopher and innovative sociological thinker.

John Adamsfirst came to prominence during the early years of the American Revolution as adelegate from Massachusetts. During meetings of the Continental Congress, Adams persuaded other Founding Fathers into drafting the Declaration of Independence, which would solidify America’s standing as a free sovereign nation.

John Adams’ role in the drafting of the Declaration of Independence was spawned through repeated attempts by Parliament’s unjust taxation methods on American colonialists. In 1765, theBritish Parliament enforced the Stamp Act without consulting American legislatures. The Act effectively required all colonial publications to beproduced on specific paper produced in London and also enforced a hefty tax onmandatory British stamps. The Parliament instituted such an Act to raise money for their army which they viewed as a necessary resource for the American colonies.

In response to this unjust taxation, Adams, as well as other prominent leaders, vehemently protested by publishing articles outlining the tyrannous actions of Parliament.The main argument offered by Adams revolved around British attempts to denyAmerican colonists the two basic rights previously guaranteed to all settlers.The “Braintree Instructions”, the publication written by John Adams, outlined that the rights to be taxed only by consent and to be tried only by a jury of one’s peers were directly violated through the Stamp Act of 1765.

The unrighteous actions and violation of civilrights by the Parliament propelled John Adams into a prominent leadership rolewithin the United States Continental Congress. As disfavor grew, Adams swore tofocus his energies on separation from the British government. In 1775, Adamsappointed George Washington as the commander-in-chief of the United Statesarmy. Over the subsequent decade, as battles waged on, John Adams urged thecolonies to begin deliberating to solidify local governments through theadoption of constitutions. Strongly influenced by Adams, this movement sparked the creation of independent governing State bodies.

John Adams quickly became regarded as the prominent source for the development of local governments and solidified this notion with the publishing of his pamphlet “Thoughts of Government.” There were many influentialdocuments published during this era, which enlightened individuals and leadersto separate governing bodies and the power of free thought. “Thoughts on Government” focused onthe art of politics and the powerful guidance it contains in regards to socialfunction and human happiness. Adams’ philosophy was simple: the government should be given power and established to meet the needs and desires of the individual.

In “Thoughts of Government” Adams wrote that the BritishParliament was an empire constructed of laws and not men. This philosophy ran deep in American society and politics, eventually influencing the creation of the United States Bill of Rights.

On June 7th, 1776 John Adams agreed to theresolution of independence and later played an imperative role in the draftingof the historical document. Although the Declaration of Independence was primarily written by Thomas Jefferson, Adams is regarded as playing the most substantial role in the debate for its adoption.

A few years followingthe adoption of the Declaration of Independence, Adams constructedMassachusetts’ new Constitution which offered an assortment of policies andsocietal innovations used to this day. The Constitution written by Adams was the first to be ratified by the people of the State and the first to feature a bicameral legislature, a distinct judicial branch, and a clear executive with two/thirds veto powers.

John Adams’views on social classes and interaction are still relevant and innovative forpresent day society. Adams believed that all forms of society would beseparated based on money or class. This notion was inevitable to Adams. However,he believed that prominent or wealthy individuals should not take part inpolitics because of their inherent power and inability to relate to the commonman. Adams never owned a slave nor believed in the idea of slavery. This stanceis a reflection of the man’s character and stresses his stance on civic virtues.

The Short Biography of John Hancock

The Short Biography of John Hancock

John Hancock: The First Signer of the Declaration of Independence

John Hancock is most famous for being the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence. However, he was much more than just a signer – he was a businessman, politician, and revolutionary who played a key role in the early history of the United States. This article will provide an overview of John Hancock’s life and his contributions to the United States.

Early Life:

John Hancock was born in Braintree, Massachusetts, in 1737. His father died when he was young, leaving him a substantial inheritance, which he used to attend Harvard College. After graduating, Hancock joined his uncle’s mercantile business, taking over as head of the company following his uncle’s death.

Hancock quickly became one of the wealthiest merchants in New England, importing goods from England and exporting goods like fish and timber to Europe. He also became involved in politics, serving as a selectman and eventually as a member of the Massachusetts colonial legislature.

Revolutionary Activities:

As tensions between the British colonies and England began to rise, Hancock became increasingly involved in revolutionary activities. He played a key role in the Boston Tea Party and was a vocal advocate for independence.

In 1774, he was elected as president of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, which was tasked with organizing the colony’s resistance to British rule. The following year, he was elected as a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he served as president of the Congress from 1775 to 1777.

The Declaration of Independence:

On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence, and John Hancock became the first person to sign it. He famously signed his name in large letters, stating that he did so “so that his Majesty might read it without his spectacles.”

While Hancock’s signature has become iconic, it is important to note that his role in the drafting of the Declaration of Independence was relatively minor. He did not serve on the committee that wrote the document and only signed it in his capacity as president of the Continental Congress.

Later Life:

After the Revolutionary War, Hancock continued to be involved in politics and served as governor of Massachusetts from 1780 to 1785. He was a vocal opponent of the United States Constitution, calling for changes to its provisions before he would support its ratification.

Hancock’s later years were marked by declining health, and he died on October 8, 1793, at the age of 56.

Legacy:

John Hancock’s legacy is primarily tied to his role as the first signer of the Declaration of Independence. However, he was much more than just a signer – he was a successful businessman and influential politician who played a key role in the early history of the United States.

While Hancock’s contributions to the United States have sometimes been overshadowed by his more famous contemporaries, such as George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, his legacy as a champion of independence and self-government is one that deserves greater recognition.

Conclusion:

John Hancock was a revolutionary leader, businessman, and politician who played a significant role in the early history of the United States. While he is most famous for being the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence, Hancock’s contributions to the country went far beyond his signature on that document. His legacy as a champion of liberty and self-government is one that should be remembered and celebrated.


John Hancockwas a prominent statesmen and an influential supporter of the AmericanRevolution. Serving as Governor of Massachusetts and President of the Second Continental Congress, Hancock was viewed as an active Patriot necessary for the establishment of a free nation.

John Hancockwas one of the wealthiest Founding Fathers and decided to use his considerableassets to unify colonialists when Britain’s reign became overrun with despoticaction. Following Britain’s victory in the Seven Years War the country quicklyamassed a considerable amount of debt. To alleviate the financial burden,Britain attempted to impose a series of unjust taxes on the colonies.

The Sugar Act of 1764 and the Stamp Act of 1765 (as well as other taxes) were enforced to levy taxes on consumer staples, but were quickly revolted against by colonialists. American settlers were not represented in Parliament; only thecolonial assemblies (where the settlers were represented) could levy suchtaxes. John Hancock and the majority of settlers thus viewed the taxation methods of Parliament as a direct violation against colonial rights.

During thisjuncture, Hancock was not a politician, but instead, a dominant wealthy figurewho viewed the taxing efforts of the British as immoral, as well as economicallyunsuitable. As a result of his public outrage over the taxation methods, JohnHancock grew wildly popular in the Boston area.

Following the rejection of the Stamp Act, BritishParliament attempted to further control the colonial import and export systems.The Townsend Acts were passed in 1767 and established new rules on imports toprevent smuggling and increase taxation on all foreign imports. Colonials again viewed these maneuvers as unjust, for British troops would commonly enterAmerican ships without warrants and seize imports or place outrageous taxes on such goods.

John Hancock, who was obscenely wealthy, commonly stationed ships in Boston and surrounding ports. When the Townsend Acts were passed, Hancock’s ships wereroutinely searched and unjustly taxed with prejudice. The most historicallysignificant act of abuse by the British on John Hancock occurred on his ship, Liberty. Customs officials boarded Liberty without proper documentation and threatened to fine or imprison Hancock for carrying contraband items, such as wine, in bulk.

Boston settlers who saw the abusive actions immediatelyintervened by storming the British agents and beating them. As a result of the Liberty situation, John Hancock led an uprising that eventually barred the obtainment of all British goods and sparked the creation of the Declaration of Independence.

John Hancock’s following was not obtained through fiery protest or physical demonstrations of power, but instead through philanthropy and by treating his fellow citizens with class and respect. The people of Boston looked to him as a leader and eventually entrusted him with the overseeing of the Declaration ofIndependence.

With support in Massachusetts and seemingly endless financial backing, John Hancock was elected President of theContinental Congress in 1775. Shortly thereafter in 1776 John Hancock was thefirst to sign the Declaration of Independence. Hancock’s signature was largeand perfectly scripted. He wanted King George of the British Parliament to be able to read his name without the use of glasses.

The Declaration of Independence marked the United States’ separation from the reign of the British Monarch. Hancock played a vital role in the creation anddrafting of the historical document. After the Declaration of Independence was instituted and America won its freedom in the Revolutionary War, John Hancock became very ill and was forced to take a leave of absence. Hancock stayed inBoston where he served as Governor until 1785.

Due toillness and old age, John Hancock was not fully immersed in the drafting of theConstitution, but he still voiced his disfavor with the Articles ofConfederation because of a failure to include the Bill of Rights. When thefollowing Constitution was sent to the states for ratification, Hancock againwas disappointed with the empowerment of a central government. Gravely ill atthis point, Hancock agreed on the ratification and proved to be the decidinginfluence for the adoption of the new Constitution.