Home Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Authored in 1776, the Declaration of Independence established the United States as a sovereign nation. The content of the Declaration of Independence outlined an ideal process of gubernatorial rule, contrasting that of the British monarchy under King George III. Thomas Jefferson, who is credited with primary authorship, attacked King George III within the text of the Declaration of Independence, claiming that the methodology of British monarchical rule abused and exploited its citizens. As a result of their new-found autonomy, the United States was free to rule itself. 
The ratification of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 was a monumental event. By signing and approving a document that openly criticized the methods employed by their former ruler, the United States had taken the first steps towards establishing themselves as a viable, self-ruling nation. Prior to the Revolutionary War, the Declaration of Independence would have been labeled as a treasonous doctrine. However, in the wake of his defeat, King George III was powerless to react to the criticisms listed in the Declaration of Independence.
The implications of the Declaration of Independence were obvious. The United States was unwilling to recreate a tyrannical monarchical governmental model under which they would be ruled. Thomas Jefferson, with the help of Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, penned the Declaration of Independence with the hopes of instituting a democratic methodology by which a central government would operate. Though a majority of the citizens of the United States still harbored resentment towards to the British, the Declaration of Independence demanded the humane treatment of all residents of the United States, including British Loyalists still living in the United States. Not only were all British prisoners required to be freed, but any property that was taken from British Loyalists in an unjust manner was ordered to be returned. By doing so, the authors of the Declaration of Independence set the groundwork for a new nation rooted in liberty and democracy. 
The Declaration of Independence set the stage for what would become the Constitution of the United States. By instituting a government whose role was to serve its citizens, the Declaration of Independence quelled any possibility of monarchy returning to the United States. The Declaration of Independence allowed its citizens ‘Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of
Happiness’, and as a result, placed the citizens in a position of power. These irrevocable rights, over which the central Government had no control, placed the citizens of the United States in a position of power over the central Government.
The Declaration of Independence forged the way for what we now know as democracy. Democratic governmental bodies are elected by the citizens they serve and are subject to removal in the event of any violation or threat of liberty. The Declaration of Independence states that the citizens of the United States allow themselves to be governed by an elected central government, a notion that contrasted their previous rule under King George III.
By criticizing the methodology of the British monarchy, the authors of the Declaration of Independence paved the way for freedom of speech. Though such open criticism of a governmental body would have been considered treasonous prior to the Revolutionary War, the Declaration of Independence aimed to provide the citizens of the United States with an abundance of freedoms.

The Words of the Declaration of Independence

The Words of the Declaration of Independence

Authored in 1776 by Thomas Jefferson with the help of fellow political leaders such as John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, the Declaration of Independence was the inaugural piece of legislative documentation in the history of the United states of America. Ratified on July 4th, 1776, the document stated that the United States of America was no longer under the control of the British Monarchy of King George III, and as a result, was free to operate as a sovereign nation independent of any ties to England.
 
 
However, the Declaration of Independence was a multi-layered document upon whose creation included two separate functions.  In addition to the primary one that established the United States of America as an independent nation, an additional function of the Declaration of Independence was a listing of the perceived legislative infractions and humanitarian crimes the authors of the Declaration of Independence had perceived to be committed on the part of King George III in the spectrum of the British Monarchy. 
 
 
The document set forth a vow to the citizens of the United States of America that the governing body would never exist as a tyranny that acted to serve the needs of the aristocracy in lieu of the general public. This statement in and of itself was extremely incendiary. The authors of the Declaration of Independence were both establishing and maintaining the sovereignty of a newly-sovereign nation in the wake of a bloody revolution in which many men perished in the service of their country. The document ascertained that the citizens of the United States of America had freed themselves from a tyrannical and totalitarian governing body by whom they had felt both betrayed and wronged.
 
 
Furthermore, the words of the Declaration of Independence ensure that any subsequent governing bodies will be sworn to act on the behalf of the people that it serves. This was in contrast to their perception of the methodology of a monarchical model of government, which the authors of the Declaration of Independence had noticed in the inverse – citizens living under a monarchical government are servants of the government, while the government serves the aristocratic class. 
 
 
The Declaration of Independence was the first legislative doctrine of its kind, which reshaped the notion of gubernatorial bodies placing the governing body in a role of servitude to its collective citizens. Subsequent to the passing of the Declaration of Independence, the United States of America was formed. Upon arriving at the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the United States of America further established both its sovereignty and independence from the British Monarchy as American and European delegates alike arranged newly-modified foreign relations that no longer involved England.
 
 
The Declaration of Independence served many functions, but seldom were more prevalent than the establishment of sovereignty on the part of the United States of America. The hardships endured under the rule of a tyrannical governing body in the form of King George III allowed for the prospect of a refusal to recreate those same circumstances in any subsequent American governing body.
 

Who Wrote The Declaration of Independence?

Who Wrote The Declaration of Independence?

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE TEXT:

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. 
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. 
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

The Declaration of Independence is the methodological blueprint for the operation of a democratic, sovereign nation. Penned by Thomas Jefferson, who was aided by fellow patriots and political ideologists John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman, the Declaration of Independence not only secures the sovereignty of the United States of America, but also formulates the first democratic gubernatorial model. 
Pursuant to their Revolutionary War victory in 1776, the newly-autonomous United States was eager to solidify a diplomatic presence, and as a result, the Continental Congress of the United States, the acting governing body at the time, requested that a doctrine be created illustrating the tenets of the new regime. 
In his authorship of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson not only cited various transgressions committed by the British monarchy under King George III against the colonists prior to the Revolutionary War, but also borrowed elements of political theory written by John Locke – a colleague of Jefferson’s, as well as a prominent political philosopher. 
According to John Locke, the foundation of an ideal governmental body was rooted in its determination to protect the interests of its citizens. In contrast to a monarchy, which is a totalitarian ruling body that possesses absolute power, a democratic central government is a conglomerate, symbiotic entity. It is comprised of various branches which only function in tandem with one another. As a result, no branch can operate as a single unit, and therefore, no decision on a national scale can be made by a single governing body. 
In addition, Locke maintained that the innate rights of the citizens were of the utmost importance in any functional democratic central government. Rather than serve its own interest, an ideal central government would dedicate itself to protecting what he deemed the ‘inalienable’ rights of every citizen of that nation.
The ingenuity attributed to the Declaration of Independence is considered to be its penchant for humanism. Prior to the creation of the Declaration of Independence, world powers ruled their citizens with absolute power, employing kings, queens, monarchs, and emperors. Boundaries between the royalty and the commoners were established and any decision or action that stood to benefit the totalitarian ruling body was assumed to benefit every citizen of that nation. 
The authors of the Declaration of Independence maintained that the collective interests of subjects living under a monarchy – Thomas Jefferson cited British monarch King George III as an example in the text of the Declaration – were only considered secondary to those interests of the monarch, if they were even to be considered at all. The Declaration of Independence allowed the citizens of the United States to overthrow a government whom they perceived no longer served the interests of the people – a radical, yet revolutionary contrast unheard of at the time. 
The Declaration of Independence illustrated the innate humanism of its authors. Not only was the central Government  considered to be an entity of public service, but the Declaration of Independence advocated for the fair and just treatment of the remaining British Loyalists still residing in the United States. The declaration not only demanded that all British prisoners be released and allowed to return to England, but also required the return of any and all Loyalist property seized in an unjust manner subsequent to the end of the Revolutionary War.

A Full Overview of the Declaration of Independence

A Full Overview of the Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence was authored in 1776 by Thomas Jefferson with the help of fellow political leaders, such as John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. Ratified on July 4th, 1776, the Declaration of Independence became the first political doctrine of its kind, advocating for a governing body whose purpose was to serve the citizens that it represented – a contrast to the British monarchy under which the citizens of the United States had been subject prior to the Revolutionary War. Furthermore, the doctrine diagrammed a central government whose power resulted from the consent of its citizens to be governed. 
The Declaration of Independence established the newly-formed United States of America as a sovereign nation, cutting all ties, both political and gubernatorial, with the British monarchy. The text of the Declaration of Independence not only confirmed the autonomy of the United States of America, but also outlined the various transgressions committed by the British monarchy under King George III. 

Lack of Governmental Power
Thomas Jefferson credited political philosopher John Locke with much of the inspiration for democratic ideology that he had implemented in his authorship of the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson had been particularly moved by Locke’s notion of a just governing body. Locke stated that every citizen would be entitled to inherent rights and liberties that could not be removed by any governmental body. In addition, Locke stated that the citizens grant their respective
government permission to govern them, and as a result, the true power is in the possession of those citizens rather than any governing body.
Thomas Jefferson took Locke’s notion a step further by laying the groundwork for a system of checks and balances in which a central government is split into separate factions, thus preventing totalitarian rule. The separate branches of government would be required to work in tandem in order to act.

Implications and Image for The Constitution
In 1776, the Declaration of Independence was approved by all of the 13 states of the newly-formed United States of America and the implications of the doctrine were apparent. Not only was the United States establishing its sovereignty as an autonomous nation, but the authors of the Declaration of Independence cited what they believed to be fundamental flaws and inefficiencies of the British monarchy under King George III. By doing so, they allowed for a contrast between a totalitarian ruling body operating with absolute power and an elected central government; a government that would be required to act as a public servant protecting the interests and rights of its citizens. In addition, as a sign of diplomatic
faith, the Declaration of Independence not only demanded the release of all British prisoners being held captive in the United States, but a return of all British loyalist property unjustly seized subsequent to the end of the Revolutionary War. 
General Message and Authorship
The Declaration of Independence not only illustrated the contempt for totalitarian, monarchical rule on the part of political figureheads such as Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin, but also elucidated what they considered to be the fundamental flaws of an tyrannical infrastructure that utilized absolute power in order to maintain dominance over its subjects. The Declaration of Independence expresses a clear philosophical message that highlights the incorporation of humanism in the development of the ideal creed to which a democratic central government would adhere. 
The authors of the Declaration of Independence placed their respective faith and trust in both the ability as well as the judgment of the citizens of the United States, both present and future. By allowing the citizens of the United States the opportunity to not only elect their governing body, but also the opportunity to choose to be governed by that elected body, some political philosophers consider the Declaration of Independence to be a prototype for humanistic political theory.

Preamble to the Declaration of Indepenence

Preamble to the Declaration of Indepenence

The Preamble of the Declaration of Independence is as follows:
“When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation”

When Was the Declaration of Independence Signed

When Was the Declaration of Independence SignedThe handwritten version of the United Sates Declaration of Independence that was signed by the Congress has the date July 4, 1776 on it. There has been a lot of debate on whether or not these signatures were actually completed on the date listed. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson all wrote in other documents that the Declaration had received its signatures from Congress on July 4. However, in 1796 Thomas McKean, a signer, disputed that the Declaration of Independence had not been signed on July 4, and stated that some signers were not present at the time, such as many who were not in Congress at the time.

Lack of Executive Power, Right of Taxation, and Judicial Body

Lack of Executive Power, Right of Taxation, and Judicial Body

The goal of the Articles of Confederation was not an ambiguous one; the appointed authors of the Articles of Confederation were determined to prevent even the slightest chance of a monarchical presence. As a result, they opted to strip the centralized government of any power and leverage over any of the individual sovereign states. Though the newly-appointed centralized government retained the ability to create and maintain a military and postal service, manage foreign affairs, declare war, establish peace treaties, and coin money, their power was halted in any and all issues involving the 13 states. 
Though the Articles of Confederation allowed the central government to request taxes and payments from the states, these requests could only be proposed in the form of a donation – there no longer existed a right of taxation. As a result, the few aspects of control and power that the central government did retain, like the formation of a military and postal service, were contingent on donations from the individual states. Should any State refuse payment, the central government had no legal authority to penalize them for withholding funding. In addition, the little power that the central government did have was stifled by its inability to enforce the upholding of laws due to the lack of any acting judicial body. For instance, there existed neither an appointed President to maintain the law, nor a judicial body to uphold the integrity of the law. 
As a result of the Articles of Confederation, the only branch of Government that existed was the legislative branch, but even its power was flawed. Though the legislative branch of the central government could institute laws, it was powerless to enforce them should a State (or states) refuse to embrace a law passed by the central government. 
Because the Articles of Confederation disallowed the central government to enforce the collection of taxes, it found itself in financial crisis. The central government had soon discovered that it was unable to not only manage the few allowances of power that it was granted by the Articles of Confederation, but also unable to maintain them without proper funding. Without a right to taxation, the central government became destitute; both the postal service, as well as the military, were on the brink of dissolution.   
  
Though the central government still retained the ability to coin money, the paper notes that they were printing were not backed by any hard currency. Because the nation needed a both a postal service as well as a military, the central government was forced to fund both organizations with worthless money, and as a result, created the devaluation of all currency in circulation.  
   
The Articles of Confederation stated that a law would only be passed in the event that 9 out of the 13 states agreed upon its validity. As a result, the creation of new laws became difficult. In addition, due to the sovereignty of the states, the establishment of a national foreign policy was an impossibility. Foreign countries that wished to trade with the United States of America were subject to 13 individual trade regulations.
Although the authors of the Articles of Confederation sought out to spare the collective citizens of any possibility of the return of a totalitarian rule, the elimination of any control that the central government could exercise in its dealing with the individual states proved to be antithetical to the establishment of any national policy.

Who Wrote The Declaration of Independence

Who Wrote The Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence is the methodological blueprint for the operation of a democratic, sovereign nation. Penned by Thomas Jefferson, who was aided by fellow patriots and political ideologists John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman, the Declaration of Independence not only secures the sovereignty of the United States of America, but also formulates the first democratic gubernatorial model. 
Pursuant to their Revolutionary War victory in 1776, the newly-autonomous United States were eager to solidify a diplomatic presence, and as a result, the Continental Congress of the United States, the acting governing body at the time, requested that a doctrine be created illustrating the tenets of the new regime.
 
In his authorship of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson not only cited various transgressions committed by the British monarchy under King George III against the colonists prior to the Revolutionary War, but also borrowed elements from political theory written by John Locke – a colleague of Jefferson’s, as well as a prominent political philosopher. 
According to John Locke, the foundation of an ideal governmental body was rooted in its determination to protect the interests of its citizens. In contrast to a monarchy, a totalitarian ruling body that possesses absolute power, a democratic central government is a conglomerate, symbiotic entity. It is comprised of various branches, which only function in tandem with one another. As a result, no branch can operate as a single unit, and therefore, no decision on a national scale can be made by a single governing body. In addition, Locke maintained that the innate rights of the citizens were of the utmost importance in any functional democratic central government, and rather than serve its own interest, an ideal central government would dedicate itself to protecting its citizens.     
The ingenuity attributed to the Declaration of Independence is considered to be its penchant for humanism. Prior to the creation of the Declaration of Independence, world powers ruled their citizens with absolute power, employing kings, queens, monarchs, and emperors. Boundaries between the royalty and the commoners were established and any decision or action that stood to benefit the totalitarian ruling body was assumed to benefit every citizen of that nation. 
The authors of the Declaration of Independence maintained that the collective interests of subjects living under a monarchy – Thomas Jefferson cited British monarch King George III as an example in the text of the Declaration – were only considered secondary to those interests of the monarch, if they were even to be considered at all. The Declaration of Independence allowed the citizens of the United States to overthrow a government which they perceived no longer served the interests of the people – a radical, yet revolutionary contrast unheard of at the time. 
The Declaration of Independence illustrated the innate humanism of its authors. Not only was the central government considered to be an entity of public service, but the Declaration of Independence advocated for the fair and just treatment of the remaining British Loyalists still residing in the United States. The Declaration not only demanded that all British prisoners be released and allowed to return to England, but also required the return of any and all Loyalist property seized in an unjust manner subsequent to the end of the Revolutionary War.

Six Principles of the Northwest Ordinance

Six Principles of the Northwest Ordinance

The Northwest Territory included land that existed outside of the original 13 states, comprised of what is now Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Though the Articles of Confederation was founded under the pretense of diminishing the authority that the central government had over the individual states, the central government was given control over the regulation of westward expansion. The Northwest Ordinance gave settlers free reign to colonize the 5 states outlined in the document. 
Under the regulations of the Northwest Ordinance, all settlers were entitled to the same freedoms and liberties afforded to citizens of the original 13 states. Located within the text of the Northwest Ordinance was a section entitled “Articles of Compact”, 6 procedural requirements to which settlers were obligated to adhere. They included an outline of processes and regulations, which ensured that the guidelines set forth in the Articles of Confederation were upheld in every territory included in the western expansion effort. Because both the Continental Congress and Thomas Jefferson were in favor of expanding the borders of the United States of America, the Northwest Ordinance was passed in order to persuade, rather than deter, settlers to do so.
In order to retain control of the expansion, only a certain amount of land was allotted to settlers participating in the western expansion effort. The Articles of Confederation allowed the central government to regulate all boundary parameters set forth in the Northwest Ordinance, and as result, the central government was responsible for granting statehood to the territories. The Northwest Ordinance required that once a territory had 5,000 settlers, they would be able to send a non-voting representative to Congress. In addition, once a territory amassed 60,000 settlers they would be entitled to apply for statehood.
The Articles of Compact required that every settlement adhere to the tenets set forth in the Articles of Confederation, which ensured that the liberties afforded to citizens residing in the 13 states would be allowed to all settlers. The six principles of the Articles of Compact stated that:
●    All settlers were granted freedom of worship.
●    All settlers were both entitled to trial by jury, as well as habeas corpus.
●    All settlers were encouraged to establish functional community relations, which included school systems and adequate housing. In addition, settlers were forbidden to do unjust harm onto Native Americans residing in surrounding areas.
●    All settlers were to adhere to the Articles of Confederation, and like the citizens of the 13 states, they too were exempt from Government-impost taxes.
●    All settlers adhere to the boundaries set forth in the Northwest Ordinance. They were forbidden from expanding past the set parameters.
●    Slavery was forbidden in the western territories.
The Northwest Ordinance was one of the few jurisdictions that the Articles of Confederation had granted the central government, and the enforcement of its regulations allowed for a democratic expansion of the United States of America’s border, fueled by liberty and opportunity.

The Treaty of Paris 1783

The Treaty of Paris 1783

The Treaty of Paris was a doctrine signed by both British and American representatives on September 3rd, 1783, which officially, diplomatically, and politically solidified the independence of the United States of America from the British monarchy. Though the Revolutionary War had ended in 1776 – unofficially establishing the United States of America as a sovereign nation – the Treaty of Paris formulated diplomatic parameters by which both the British and American nations were required to abide.
 
Once the British monarchy, now under the rule of King George III, recognized the United States of America as an independent, sovereign nation, other European powers such as the French, Spanish, and Dutch were inclined to follow suit. As a result, a framework of guidelines was established in the Treaty of Paris in order to ensure respectful diplomacy between the newly-borne United States of America and its European counterparts.
 
Authorship of the Treaty of Paris is credited to Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay. The fundamentals expressed within the text of the Treaty of Paris addressed various contingencies and situations, ranging from diplomacy, commerce, and the specification of borders. In addition, as to not repeat the perceived tyranny of the British monarchy under King George II, the authors included clauses within the Treaty of Paris that ensured fair and just dealings with the British Loyalists – both freed, as well as those in captivity – who still remained in the United States of America. The Treaty of Paris is considered to be the United States of America’s first dogmatic doctrine establishing foreign policy.
 
Many American political figureheads, as well as early settlers, were adamant about westward expansion. However, the authors of the Treaty of Paris were wary of conducting tyrannical diplomatic dealings, and as a result, they were meticulous in their establishment of borders prior to allowing settlers to colonize the Western frontier. Settlers who wished to participate in the westward expansion were permitted to colonize what we now know as Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and some of Minnesota. By regulating westward expansion, diplomatic relations could be maintained as a result of preventing the encroachment onto territory that belonged to other European nations.
 
The Treaty of Paris demanded that specified unclaimed lands be shared by multiple nations. For instance, both British and American merchants were permitted to cultivate the land and sea on eastern coastal Canadian provinces, such as Nova Scotia.
     
The Revolutionary War granted the United States of America independence from British rule, and after their defeat, a majority of British citizens returned to England. However, the Loyalists who remained willingly, and even those who were in captivity, found themselves to be a minority amongst the newly-established United States citizens; a dynamic that created opportunities for the exploitation of the remaining British loyalists. British loyalists, both freed as well as in captivity, were robbed of their lands and possessions, many times without reason or sound justification.
 
The authors of the Treaty of Paris chose to delineate their democratic principles from the preexisting behaviors of the British Monarchy, and as a result, all land unlawfully seized from British loyalists was ordered to be returned. In addition, all prisoners (both British and American) were ordered to be set free and allowed safe return to their respective homelands.
     
Finally, the Treaty of Paris instructed that all lawful debt be collected in a fair and just manner, regardless of the nationality of the debt holder. Both British and American citizens were treated equally.
 
The Treaty of Paris represents the United States of America’s first diplomatic endeavor. As a result of their unjust treatment by the British monarchy, the authors of the Treaty of Paris wished to portray a more humane and just method of diplomatic dealings.

States Rights

Right to Privacy

John Witherspoon

James Wilson

Elbridge Gerry

John Dickinson