constitution » Declaration of Independence http://constitution.laws.com Constitution- Constitution Law, US Constitution, The Constitution, Constitutional Law Thu, 02 Feb 2017 18:20:05 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=4.1.18 The Declaration of Independence http://constitution.laws.com/declaration-of-independence http://constitution.laws.com/declaration-of-independence#comments Tue, 07 Apr 2015 18:49:12 +0000 The Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence is a doctrine that was primarily authored by Thomas Jefferson in 1776, with the assistance of other prominent political figures of the time, such as John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman. Once the Continental Congress had approved of its contents, they disseminated the final draft of the Declaration of Independence to all of the newly-independent 13 states in the hopes of the document’s ratification. 
On July 4th, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was approved by 12 of the 13 states of the American Union. New York’s individual State Legislature did not allow its appointed representatives the permission to vote in a national forum. However, New York State approved the document on July 15, 1776, upon being granted permission by its State Legislature. 
The intended purpose of the Declaration of Independence was multifaceted. As its name suggests, the inception of the Declaration of Independence served to confirm the autonomy of the United States of America as a sovereign nation, emancipated from the control of British monarchy. In no uncertain terms, the Declaration of Independence established a complete disengagement from the British monarchy, as well as King George III. 
The Declaration of Independence clarified the role of a central government in the United States. Contrasting what was deemed as tyrannical by citizens who had lived under the rule of King George II’s monarchy, the authors of the Declaration of Independence constructed a gubernatorial model which solidified the role of a centralized government as a ruling body whose function is to serve its citizens. 
The Declaration of Independence illustrates various contingencies in which the citizens of the United States are entitled to overthrow a government that they deem tyrannical. Such contingencies include a central government’s refusal to provide ‘Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness’ to its citizens. In addition, the Declaration of Independence calls for the acting central Government to operate under the pretense that the citizens whom it is sworn to protect concede to be governed. This act of concession on the part of the citizens was a contrary dynamic to the previous monarchical model under which the colonists were ruled prior to the Revolutionary War. The authors of the Declaration of Independence wished to illustrate that the citizens of the United States were allowing themselves to be governed, rather than having authority unwillingly foisted upon them.
The authors of the Declaration of Independence not only wished to create a new paradigm of governmental rule, but they were also determined to illustrate the flaws of a monarchical ruling body. The remainder of the doctrine assails King George III, who was the acting Monarch of England at the time, of the penning of the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson, who was considered to be the foremost critic of King George III, outlined the Monarch’s various transgressions against liberty, justice, and democracy. 
The Declaration of Independence not only solidified the United States as a sovereign nation, but also set the philosophical and political groundwork for the establishment of a governing body that would act as a servant to its citizens – the first political model of its kind.
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A Series of Checks and Balances http://constitution.laws.com/american-history/declaration-of-independence/checks-and-balances http://constitution.laws.com/american-history/declaration-of-independence/checks-and-balances#comments Tue, 07 Apr 2015 18:49:12 +0000 A Series of Checks and Balances

Following the defeat of the British forces in the Revolutionary War in 1776, the United States of America was eager to declare their sovereignty from the monarchy of King George III. Resentment towards a totalitarian governmental body was a sentiment that was shared throughout the nation. The Continental Congress was eager to establish a doctrine that would solidify the United States autonomy as a nation, enlisting the services of political figureheads such as Thomas Jefferson and John Adams to construct such a document. Ratified on July 4th, 1776, the Declaration of Independence not only confirmed the sovereignty of the United States of America, but also outlined a desired governmental model rooted in public servitude rather than absolute power.
Although Thomas Jefferson was credited with primary authorship of the Declaration of Independence, he maintained that many of the ideas he had implemented in the text of the Declaration of Independence were inspired by fellow political thinker John Locke. Locke upheld that any central government that retained to the right to remove rights from its citizens was innately flawed in its nature. Furthermore, he expressed that a central government must operate under the pretense that its citizens have consented to be governed. As a result, the ruling governing body operates as an entity of servitude rather than totalitarianism.

Jefferson’s idea of an ideal government not only shaped the governmental construct outlined in the Declaration of Independence, but also laid the foundation for a system of checks and balances, further regulating the power of the central Government.

A system of checks and balances, which would be further outlined in the Federalist Papers, and later in the Constitution, was a system created to disburse power throughout multiple governmental factions rather than consolidate power to a single one. As a result, no single gubernatorial entity would be permitted to have more power than any other. Each of the 3 branches of government, which included the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches, were required to work in tandem  in order to pass or amend laws. Because of the overlapping of their respective jurisdiction, a totalitarian governmental body was impossible. The power allowed to them by the Declaration of Independence was kept both in check, as well as balanced.

The Declaration of Independence established that a central government was to be elected by the people and, as a result, the role of government would be to preserve and protect the interest of its citizens. Since the citizens of the United States would be allowing themselves to be governed, they were entitled to overthrow a government whom they perceived to be tyrannical.

The Declaration of Independence allowed for a central government whose innate ruling power would be dwarfed by the power that its citizens possessed. Since the citizens were allowing themselves to be governed, this assigned fleeting power to any gubernatorial body. Any central government that existed in the United States would be subject to abolition if its citizens felt that their needs were not being met.

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Signers of the Declaration of Independence http://constitution.laws.com/signers-of-the-declaration-of-independence http://constitution.laws.com/signers-of-the-declaration-of-independence#comments Tue, 07 Apr 2015 18:49:12 +0000 Signers of the Declaration of Independence
Authored in 1776, the Declaration of Independence established the United States as a sovereign nation. The content of the Declaration of Independence outlined an ideal process of gubernatorial rule, contrasting that of the British monarchy under King George III. Thomas Jefferson, who is credited with primary authorship, attacked King George III within the text of the Declaration of Independence, claiming that the methodology of British monarchical rule abused and exploited its citizens. As a result of their new-found autonomy, the United States was free to rule itself. 
The ratification of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 was a monumental event. By signing and approving a document that openly criticized the methods employed by their former ruler, the United States had taken the first steps towards establishing themselves as a viable, self-ruling nation. Prior to the Revolutionary War, the Declaration of Independence would have been labeled as a treasonous doctrine. However, in the wake of his defeat, King George III was powerless to react to the criticisms listed in the Declaration of Independence.
The implications of the Declaration of Independence were obvious. The United States was unwilling to recreate a tyrannical monarchical governmental model under which they would be ruled. Thomas Jefferson, with the help of Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, penned the Declaration of Independence with the hopes of instituting a democratic methodology by which a central government would operate. Though a majority of the citizens of the United States still harbored resentment towards to the British, the Declaration of Independence demanded the humane treatment of all residents of the United States, including British Loyalists still living in the United States. Not only were all British prisoners required to be freed, but any property that was taken from British Loyalists in an unjust manner was ordered to be returned. By doing so, the authors of the Declaration of Independence set the groundwork for a new nation rooted in liberty and democracy. 
The Declaration of Independence set the stage for what would become the Constitution of the United States. By instituting a government whose role was to serve its citizens, the Declaration of Independence quelled any possibility of monarchy returning to the United States. The Declaration of Independence allowed its citizens ‘Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of
Happiness’, and as a result, placed the citizens in a position of power. These irrevocable rights, over which the central Government had no control, placed the citizens of the United States in a position of power over the central Government.
The Declaration of Independence forged the way for what we now know as democracy. Democratic governmental bodies are elected by the citizens they serve and are subject to removal in the event of any violation or threat of liberty. The Declaration of Independence states that the citizens of the United States allow themselves to be governed by an elected central government, a notion that contrasted their previous rule under King George III.
By criticizing the methodology of the British monarchy, the authors of the Declaration of Independence paved the way for freedom of speech. Though such open criticism of a governmental body would have been considered treasonous prior to the Revolutionary War, the Declaration of Independence aimed to provide the citizens of the United States with an abundance of freedoms.
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The Words of the Declaration of Independence http://constitution.laws.com/american-history/declaration-of-independence/declaration-of-independence-text http://constitution.laws.com/american-history/declaration-of-independence/declaration-of-independence-text#comments Tue, 07 Apr 2015 18:49:12 +0000 The Words of the Declaration of Independence
Authored in 1776 by Thomas Jefferson with the help of fellow political leaders such as John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, the Declaration of Independence was the inaugural piece of legislative documentation in the history of the United states of America. Ratified on July 4th, 1776, the document stated that the United States of America was no longer under the control of the British Monarchy of King George III, and as a result, was free to operate as a sovereign nation independent of any ties to England.
 
 
However, the Declaration of Independence was a multi-layered document upon whose creation included two separate functions.  In addition to the primary one that established the United States of America as an independent nation, an additional function of the Declaration of Independence was a listing of the perceived legislative infractions and humanitarian crimes the authors of the Declaration of Independence had perceived to be committed on the part of King George III in the spectrum of the British Monarchy. 
 
 
The document set forth a vow to the citizens of the United States of America that the governing body would never exist as a tyranny that acted to serve the needs of the aristocracy in lieu of the general public. This statement in and of itself was extremely incendiary. The authors of the Declaration of Independence were both establishing and maintaining the sovereignty of a newly-sovereign nation in the wake of a bloody revolution in which many men perished in the service of their country. The document ascertained that the citizens of the United States of America had freed themselves from a tyrannical and totalitarian governing body by whom they had felt both betrayed and wronged.
 
 
Furthermore, the words of the Declaration of Independence ensure that any subsequent governing bodies will be sworn to act on the behalf of the people that it serves. This was in contrast to their perception of the methodology of a monarchical model of government, which the authors of the Declaration of Independence had noticed in the inverse – citizens living under a monarchical government are servants of the government, while the government serves the aristocratic class. 
 
 
The Declaration of Independence was the first legislative doctrine of its kind, which reshaped the notion of gubernatorial bodies placing the governing body in a role of servitude to its collective citizens. Subsequent to the passing of the Declaration of Independence, the United States of America was formed. Upon arriving at the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the United States of America further established both its sovereignty and independence from the British Monarchy as American and European delegates alike arranged newly-modified foreign relations that no longer involved England.
 
 
The Declaration of Independence served many functions, but seldom were more prevalent than the establishment of sovereignty on the part of the United States of America. The hardships endured under the rule of a tyrannical governing body in the form of King George III allowed for the prospect of a refusal to recreate those same circumstances in any subsequent American governing body.
 
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Who Wrote The Declaration of Independence? http://constitution.laws.com/declaration-of-independence-text http://constitution.laws.com/declaration-of-independence-text#comments Tue, 07 Apr 2015 18:49:12 +0000 Who Wrote The Declaration of Independence?
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE TEXT:

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. 
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. 
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

The Declaration of Independence is the methodological blueprint for the operation of a democratic, sovereign nation. Penned by Thomas Jefferson, who was aided by fellow patriots and political ideologists John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman, the Declaration of Independence not only secures the sovereignty of the United States of America, but also formulates the first democratic gubernatorial model. 
Pursuant to their Revolutionary War victory in 1776, the newly-autonomous United States was eager to solidify a diplomatic presence, and as a result, the Continental Congress of the United States, the acting governing body at the time, requested that a doctrine be created illustrating the tenets of the new regime. 
In his authorship of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson not only cited various transgressions committed by the British monarchy under King George III against the colonists prior to the Revolutionary War, but also borrowed elements of political theory written by John Locke – a colleague of Jefferson’s, as well as a prominent political philosopher. 
According to John Locke, the foundation of an ideal governmental body was rooted in its determination to protect the interests of its citizens. In contrast to a monarchy, which is a totalitarian ruling body that possesses absolute power, a democratic central government is a conglomerate, symbiotic entity. It is comprised of various branches which only function in tandem with one another. As a result, no branch can operate as a single unit, and therefore, no decision on a national scale can be made by a single governing body. 
In addition, Locke maintained that the innate rights of the citizens were of the utmost importance in any functional democratic central government. Rather than serve its own interest, an ideal central government would dedicate itself to protecting what he deemed the ‘inalienable’ rights of every citizen of that nation.
The ingenuity attributed to the Declaration of Independence is considered to be its penchant for humanism. Prior to the creation of the Declaration of Independence, world powers ruled their citizens with absolute power, employing kings, queens, monarchs, and emperors. Boundaries between the royalty and the commoners were established and any decision or action that stood to benefit the totalitarian ruling body was assumed to benefit every citizen of that nation. 
The authors of the Declaration of Independence maintained that the collective interests of subjects living under a monarchy – Thomas Jefferson cited British monarch King George III as an example in the text of the Declaration – were only considered secondary to those interests of the monarch, if they were even to be considered at all. The Declaration of Independence allowed the citizens of the United States to overthrow a government whom they perceived no longer served the interests of the people – a radical, yet revolutionary contrast unheard of at the time. 
The Declaration of Independence illustrated the innate humanism of its authors. Not only was the central Government  considered to be an entity of public service, but the Declaration of Independence advocated for the fair and just treatment of the remaining British Loyalists still residing in the United States. The declaration not only demanded that all British prisoners be released and allowed to return to England, but also required the return of any and all Loyalist property seized in an unjust manner subsequent to the end of the Revolutionary War.
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A Full Overview of the Declaration of Independence http://constitution.laws.com/declaration-of-independence http://constitution.laws.com/declaration-of-independence#comments Tue, 07 Apr 2015 18:48:43 +0000 A Full Overview of the Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was authored in 1776 by Thomas Jefferson with the help of fellow political leaders, such as John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. Ratified on July 4th, 1776, the Declaration of Independence became the first political doctrine of its kind, advocating for a governing body whose purpose was to serve the citizens that it represented – a contrast to the British monarchy under which the citizens of the United States had been subject prior to the Revolutionary War. Furthermore, the doctrine diagrammed a central government whose power resulted from the consent of its citizens to be governed. 
The Declaration of Independence established the newly-formed United States of America as a sovereign nation, cutting all ties, both political and gubernatorial, with the British monarchy. The text of the Declaration of Independence not only confirmed the autonomy of the United States of America, but also outlined the various transgressions committed by the British monarchy under King George III. 

Lack of Governmental Power
Thomas Jefferson credited political philosopher John Locke with much of the inspiration for democratic ideology that he had implemented in his authorship of the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson had been particularly moved by Locke’s notion of a just governing body. Locke stated that every citizen would be entitled to inherent rights and liberties that could not be removed by any governmental body. In addition, Locke stated that the citizens grant their respective
government permission to govern them, and as a result, the true power is in the possession of those citizens rather than any governing body.
Thomas Jefferson took Locke’s notion a step further by laying the groundwork for a system of checks and balances in which a central government is split into separate factions, thus preventing totalitarian rule. The separate branches of government would be required to work in tandem in order to act.

Implications and Image for The Constitution
In 1776, the Declaration of Independence was approved by all of the 13 states of the newly-formed United States of America and the implications of the doctrine were apparent. Not only was the United States establishing its sovereignty as an autonomous nation, but the authors of the Declaration of Independence cited what they believed to be fundamental flaws and inefficiencies of the British monarchy under King George III. By doing so, they allowed for a contrast between a totalitarian ruling body operating with absolute power and an elected central government; a government that would be required to act as a public servant protecting the interests and rights of its citizens. In addition, as a sign of diplomatic
faith, the Declaration of Independence not only demanded the release of all British prisoners being held captive in the United States, but a return of all British loyalist property unjustly seized subsequent to the end of the Revolutionary War. 
General Message and Authorship
The Declaration of Independence not only illustrated the contempt for totalitarian, monarchical rule on the part of political figureheads such as Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin, but also elucidated what they considered to be the fundamental flaws of an tyrannical infrastructure that utilized absolute power in order to maintain dominance over its subjects. The Declaration of Independence expresses a clear philosophical message that highlights the incorporation of humanism in the development of the ideal creed to which a democratic central government would adhere. 
The authors of the Declaration of Independence placed their respective faith and trust in both the ability as well as the judgment of the citizens of the United States, both present and future. By allowing the citizens of the United States the opportunity to not only elect their governing body, but also the opportunity to choose to be governed by that elected body, some political philosophers consider the Declaration of Independence to be a prototype for humanistic political theory.
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Preamble to the Declaration of Indepenence http://constitution.laws.com/preamble-to-the-declaration-of-indepenence http://constitution.laws.com/preamble-to-the-declaration-of-indepenence#comments Tue, 07 Apr 2015 18:48:43 +0000 Preamble to the Declaration of Indepenence
The Preamble of the Declaration of Independence is as follows:
“When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation”
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When Was the Declaration of Independence Signed http://constitution.laws.com/when-was-the-declaration-of-independence-signed http://constitution.laws.com/when-was-the-declaration-of-independence-signed#comments Tue, 07 Apr 2015 18:48:40 +0000 When Was the Declaration of Independence SignedThe handwritten version of the United Sates Declaration of Independence that was signed by the Congress has the date July 4, 1776 on it. There has been a lot of debate on whether or not these signatures were actually completed on the date listed. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson all wrote in other documents that the Declaration had received its signatures from Congress on July 4. However, in 1796 Thomas McKean, a signer, disputed that the Declaration of Independence had not been signed on July 4, and stated that some signers were not present at the time, such as many who were not in Congress at the time.

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Lack of Executive Power, Right of Taxation, and Judicial Body http://constitution.laws.com/declaration-of-independence/lack-of-executive-power-right-of-taxation-and-judicial-body http://constitution.laws.com/declaration-of-independence/lack-of-executive-power-right-of-taxation-and-judicial-body#comments Tue, 07 Apr 2015 18:47:01 +0000 Lack of Executive Power, Right of Taxation, and Judicial Body
The goal of the Articles of Confederation was not an ambiguous one; the appointed authors of the Articles of Confederation were determined to prevent even the slightest chance of a monarchical presence. As a result, they opted to strip the centralized government of any power and leverage over any of the individual sovereign states. Though the newly-appointed centralized government retained the ability to create and maintain a military and postal service, manage foreign affairs, declare war, establish peace treaties, and coin money, their power was halted in any and all issues involving the 13 states. 
Though the Articles of Confederation allowed the central government to request taxes and payments from the states, these requests could only be proposed in the form of a donation – there no longer existed a right of taxation. As a result, the few aspects of control and power that the central government did retain, like the formation of a military and postal service, were contingent on donations from the individual states. Should any State refuse payment, the central government had no legal authority to penalize them for withholding funding. In addition, the little power that the central government did have was stifled by its inability to enforce the upholding of laws due to the lack of any acting judicial body. For instance, there existed neither an appointed President to maintain the law, nor a judicial body to uphold the integrity of the law. 
As a result of the Articles of Confederation, the only branch of Government that existed was the legislative branch, but even its power was flawed. Though the legislative branch of the central government could institute laws, it was powerless to enforce them should a State (or states) refuse to embrace a law passed by the central government. 
Because the Articles of Confederation disallowed the central government to enforce the collection of taxes, it found itself in financial crisis. The central government had soon discovered that it was unable to not only manage the few allowances of power that it was granted by the Articles of Confederation, but also unable to maintain them without proper funding. Without a right to taxation, the central government became destitute; both the postal service, as well as the military, were on the brink of dissolution.   
  
Though the central government still retained the ability to coin money, the paper notes that they were printing were not backed by any hard currency. Because the nation needed a both a postal service as well as a military, the central government was forced to fund both organizations with worthless money, and as a result, created the devaluation of all currency in circulation.  
   
The Articles of Confederation stated that a law would only be passed in the event that 9 out of the 13 states agreed upon its validity. As a result, the creation of new laws became difficult. In addition, due to the sovereignty of the states, the establishment of a national foreign policy was an impossibility. Foreign countries that wished to trade with the United States of America were subject to 13 individual trade regulations.
Although the authors of the Articles of Confederation sought out to spare the collective citizens of any possibility of the return of a totalitarian rule, the elimination of any control that the central government could exercise in its dealing with the individual states proved to be antithetical to the establishment of any national policy.
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Who Wrote The Declaration of Independence http://constitution.laws.com/who-wrote-the-declaration-of-independence http://constitution.laws.com/who-wrote-the-declaration-of-independence#comments Tue, 07 Apr 2015 18:46:09 +0000 Who Wrote The Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence is the methodological blueprint for the operation of a democratic, sovereign nation. Penned by Thomas Jefferson, who was aided by fellow patriots and political ideologists John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman, the Declaration of Independence not only secures the sovereignty of the United States of America, but also formulates the first democratic gubernatorial model. 
Pursuant to their Revolutionary War victory in 1776, the newly-autonomous United States were eager to solidify a diplomatic presence, and as a result, the Continental Congress of the United States, the acting governing body at the time, requested that a doctrine be created illustrating the tenets of the new regime.
 
In his authorship of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson not only cited various transgressions committed by the British monarchy under King George III against the colonists prior to the Revolutionary War, but also borrowed elements from political theory written by John Locke – a colleague of Jefferson’s, as well as a prominent political philosopher. 
According to John Locke, the foundation of an ideal governmental body was rooted in its determination to protect the interests of its citizens. In contrast to a monarchy, a totalitarian ruling body that possesses absolute power, a democratic central government is a conglomerate, symbiotic entity. It is comprised of various branches, which only function in tandem with one another. As a result, no branch can operate as a single unit, and therefore, no decision on a national scale can be made by a single governing body. In addition, Locke maintained that the innate rights of the citizens were of the utmost importance in any functional democratic central government, and rather than serve its own interest, an ideal central government would dedicate itself to protecting its citizens.     
The ingenuity attributed to the Declaration of Independence is considered to be its penchant for humanism. Prior to the creation of the Declaration of Independence, world powers ruled their citizens with absolute power, employing kings, queens, monarchs, and emperors. Boundaries between the royalty and the commoners were established and any decision or action that stood to benefit the totalitarian ruling body was assumed to benefit every citizen of that nation. 
The authors of the Declaration of Independence maintained that the collective interests of subjects living under a monarchy – Thomas Jefferson cited British monarch King George III as an example in the text of the Declaration – were only considered secondary to those interests of the monarch, if they were even to be considered at all. The Declaration of Independence allowed the citizens of the United States to overthrow a government which they perceived no longer served the interests of the people – a radical, yet revolutionary contrast unheard of at the time. 
The Declaration of Independence illustrated the innate humanism of its authors. Not only was the central government considered to be an entity of public service, but the Declaration of Independence advocated for the fair and just treatment of the remaining British Loyalists still residing in the United States. The Declaration not only demanded that all British prisoners be released and allowed to return to England, but also required the return of any and all Loyalist property seized in an unjust manner subsequent to the end of the Revolutionary War.
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